Processing, Fabrication, & Manufacturing

Rao Tummala

Pettit Chair Professor
Tummala

Contact Information

Office:
MaRC 351
Phone:
404.894.9097
Fax:
404.894.9140

Dr. Rao Tummala is a Distinguished and an Endowed Chair Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering and in Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Tech. He is also the Founding Director of an Engineering Research Center (ERC), originally funded by the NSF, called the Microsystems Packaging Research Center (PRC) pioneering the Second Law of Electronics (the first being Moore ’s Law) by his System-On-Package (SOP) vision.

Grad Students

Tummala

Pages

  • Tummala, R.R., "Moving Next-Generation Electronics Beyond Moore's Law," Georgia Institute of Technology Research Horizons magazine, Faculty Column, November 2006, 
    pgs. 24-25.
  • Tummala, R.R., “Moore’s Law Meets Its Match”, IEEE Spectrum magazine, June 2006.
  • Tummala, R.R., P. Markondeya Raj, Venky Sundaram, Chong Yoon, Mahadevan Iyer, “SOP for multifunctional system packages”, Advanced Packaging, July 2005.
  • Tummala, R.R., Manos Tentzeris, Joy Laskar, Gee-Kung Chang, Suresh Sitaraman, David Keezer, Daniel Guidotti, Zhaoran Huang, Kyutae Lim, Lixi Wan, Swapan Bhattacharya, Venkatesh Sundaram, Fuhan Liu, and P. Markondeya Raj, “The SOP for miniaturized, mixed-signal computing, communication, and consumer systems of the next decade”, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, vol. 27, no 2, pp. 250-267, 2004.
  • Tummala, R.R., editor and author, “SOP: What is it and why? A new microsystem-integration technology paradigm-Moore's law for system integration of miniaturized convergent systems of the next decade”, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, vol. 27, no 2, pp. 241-249, 2004.
  • Tummala, R.R., “System-on-Package Integrates Multiple Tasks”, February 2004
  • Tummala, R.R., Joy Laskar, "Gigabit wireless: System-on-Package technology," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 92, 2004, pp. 376–387.
  • Tummala, Venky Sundaram, Fuhan Liu, Sidharth Dalmia, Joseph Hobbs, Erdem Matoglu, Mekita Davis, George White, Joy Laskar, Madhavan Swaminthan, Nan-Marie Jokerst, Toshihisa Nonaka, "Digital, RF and Optical Integration in System-on-a-Package (SOP) for Convergent Systems", ICEP 2002, Tokyo, Japan, June 2002.
  • Tummala R. R., Editor and Author, Fundamentals of Microsystems Packaging, McGraw Hill, June 2001.
  • R. R. Tummala, V. K. Madisetti, System on Chip or System on Package, IEEE Design & Test of Computers, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 48-56, April 1999.
  • Tummala, R.R., co-editor and author, Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, 3 volumes, Chapman Hall, 1996.
  • Tummala, R. R., Multichip Packaging A Tutorial, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 80, pp. 1924-1941, Dec. 1992
  • Tummala, R.R., Ceramic and Glass-Ceramic Packaging in the 1990s, Journal of American Ceramic Society, Vol. 74, pp. 895-908, 1991.
  • Tummala, R. R., editor & author, Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, Van Nostrand, 1989.

Eric Vogel

Deputy Director of the Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology (IEN) Associate Director for Shared Resources of the Institute for Materials (IMat)
Vogel

Contact Information

Office:
Marcus 2133
Phone:
404.385.7235
Fax:
404.894.9140

Eric M. Vogel is currently Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Deputy Director of the Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology, and Associate Director for Shared Resources of the Institute for Materials. Prior to joining GT in August 2011, he was Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Electrical Engineering at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) where he was also Associate Director of the Texas Analog Center of Excellence and led UTD’s portion of the Southwest Academy for Nanoelectronics.

C. P. Wong

Regents' Professor & Smithgall Institute Endowed Chair
Wong

Contact Information

Office:
LOVE 367
Phone:
404.894.8391
Fax:
404.894.9140

Professor C. P. Wong is the Charles Smithgall Institute Endowed Chair and Regents’ Professor. After his doctoral study, he was awarded a two-year postdoctoral fellowship with Nobel Laureate Professor Henry Taube at Stanford University.  Prior to joining Georgia Tech, he was with AT&T Bell Laboratories for many years and became an AT&T Bell Laboratories Fellow in 1992.

Peer Reviewed Journal Papers Published  in 2016: 

  1. C. Xu, Z. Li, C. Yang, P. Zou, B. Xie, Z. Lin, Z. Zhang, B. Li, F. Kang, C. P. Wong, An Ultralong, Highly Oriented Nickel-Nanowire-Array Electrode Scaffold for High-Performance Compressible Pseudocapacitors,  Adv. Mater., 2016, 28, 4105-4110
  2. J. Wang, G. Lian, H. Si, Q. Wang, D. Cui, and C. P. Wong, “Pressure-Induced Oriented Attachment Growth of Large-Size Crystals for constructing 3D Ordered Superstructures,” ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 1.
  3. L.  Zhang, P. Zhu, F. Zhou, W. Zeng, H. Su, G. Li, J. Gao, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Flexible Asymmetrical Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on Laboratory Filter Paper,” ACS Nano, 2016, 10.
  4. L. Li, B. Song, L. Maurer, Z. Lin, G. Lian, C.-C. Tuan, K.-S. Moon, C. P. Wong, "Molecular engineering of aromatic amine spacers for high-performance graphene-based supercapacitors,” Nano Energy, 21, 276-294.
  5. B. Song, J. Zhao, M. Wang, J. Mullavey, Y. Zhu, Z. Geng, D. Chen, Y. Ding, K.S. Moon, M. Liu, C.P. Wong, “Systematic Study on Structural and Electronic Properties of Diamine/ Triamine Functionalized Graphene Networks for Supercapacitor Application,” Nano Energy, 2017, 31, 183-193.
  6. G. Wang, X. Chen, S. Liu, C. P. Wong, S. Chu, Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real Time-Plasmonic Tuning, ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 1788-1794.
  7. L. Zhang, P. Zhu, F. Zhou, W. Zeng, H. Su, G. Li, J. Gao, R. Sun, C.P. Wong, Flexible Asymmetrical Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on Laboratory Filter Paper, ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 1273-1282.
  8. J. Wang, G. Lian, H. Si, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C.P. Wong, Pressure-Induced Oriented Attachment Growth of Large-Size Crystals for Constructing 3D Ordered Superstructures, ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 405-412.
  9. T. Wang, G. Liu, J. Kong, C. Wong, Fabrication and Hydrophobic Properties of Column-Array Silicon Using Wood-Structured Silver-Assisted Chemical Etching, Adv. Mater. Inter., 2016, 3, 1600552.
  10. X. Zeng, L. Ye, K. Guo, R. Sun, J. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Fibrous Epoxy Substrate with High Thermal Conductivity and Low Dielectric Property for Flexible Electronics, Adv. Electron. Mater., 2016, 2, 1500485.
  11. S. Zhou, L. Li, H. Yu, J. Chen, C.-P. Wong, N. Zhao, Thin Film Electrochemical Capacitors Based on Organolead Triiodide Perovskite, Adv. Electron. Mater., 2016, 2, 1600114.
  12. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C. Wong, Amorphous nanostructured FeOOH and Co-Ni double hydroxides for high-performance aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors. Nano Energy, 2016, 21, 145-153.
  13. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C. Wong, Nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbon foam: A free-standing electrode and mechanical support for high-performance supercapacitors. Nano Energy, 2016, 25, 193-202.
  14. S. Zhou, L. Li, H. Yu, J. Chen, C. Wong, Ni Zhao, Thin-film electrochemical capacitors based on organolead triiodide perovskites. Adv. Electron. Mater. , 2016, 1600114.
  15. C. Xu, J. Liao, C. Yang, R. Wang, D. Wu, P. Zou, Z. Lin, B. Li, F. Kang, C.-P. Wong, An ultrafast, high capacity and superior longevity Ni/Zn battery constructed on nickel nanowire array film, Nano Energy, 2016, 30, 900-908.
  16. B. Xie, Y. Wang, W. Lai, W. Lin, Z. Lin, Z. Zhang, P. Zou, Y. Xu, S. Zhou, C. Yang, F. Kang, C.-P. Wong, Laser-processed graphene based micro-supercapacitors for ultrathin, rollable, compact and designable energy storage components, Nano Energy, 2016, 26, 276-285.
  17. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C.-P. Wong, Amorphous nanostructured FeOOH and Co-Ni double hydroxides for high-performance aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors, Nano Energy, 2016, 21, 145-153.
  18. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C.-P. Wong, Nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbon foam: A free-standing electrode and mechanical support for high-performance supercapacitors, Nano Energy, 2016, 25, 193-202.
  19. J. Wang, G. Lian, H. Si, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C. Wong, "Pressure-induced oriented attachment growth of large-size crystals for constructing 3D ordered superstructures," ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 405-412.
  20. C. Li, Y. T. Xu, B. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. G. Chen, J. B. Xu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Flexible grahpene electrothermal films made from electrochemical exfoliation of graphite,” Journal of Materials Science, 2016, 51.
  21. J. Xia, J. Li, G. Zhang, X. Zeng, F. Niu, H. Yang, R. Sun, C. P. Wong. “Highly mechanical strength and thermally conductive bismaleimide-triazine composites reinforced by Al2O3@Polyimide hybrid fiber,” Composites Part A, 2016, 80, 21-27.
  22. Q. Chi, J. Dong, C. Zhang, CP Wong, X. Wang, and Q. Lei, “Nano iron oxide-deposited calcium copper titanate/polyimide hybrid films induced by an external magnetic field: toward a high dielectric constant and suppressed loss,” J. Mater. Chem. C., 2016, 4, 8179-8188.
  23. Q. Xie, Y. Xu, Z. Wang, C. Xu, P. Zou, Z. Lin, C. Xu, C. Yang, F. Kang, and C. P. Wong, “Vapor Phase Polymerized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a Nickel-Nanowire-Array Film: Aqueous Symmetrical Pseudocapacitors with Superior Performances,” Plos One, 2016, 11, 11.
  24. J.-M. Chen, C.-Y. Chen, C. P. Wong, and C.-Y. Chen, "Inherent formation of porous p-type Si nanowires using palladium-assisted chemical etching,” Applied Surface Science, 2016, 392, 498-502.
  25. Hao Chen, Ting Zhao, Hao Yang, Le Zhang, Tianyuan Zhou, Dingyuan Tang, Chingping Wong, Yung-Fu Chen, Deyuan Shen. “Energy level systems and transitions of Ho:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by a narrow line-width Tm fiber laser,” Optics Express, 2016, 24(24): 27536-27545.
  26. L. X. Wang, X. J. Yang, W. M. Yang, J. Zhang, Q. T. Zhang, B. Song, C. P. Wong. “Surface Defect Modification of ZnO Quantum Dots Based on Rare Earth Acetylacetonate and their Impacts on Optical Performance,” Applied Surface Science, 2017, 398, 97–102.
  27. L. X. Wang, X. J. Yang, W. M. Yang, J. Zhang, Q. T. Zhang, B. Song, C. P. Wong, “Holmium acetylacetonate, a compatibilizer between ZnO quantum dots and epoxy resin,” Optical Materials Express, 2016,6(5):1757-1767.
  28. Y. Lu, L. Sun, L. Wei, R. Zhang, C. Lu, Y. Ni, Z. Xu and C. P. Wong, "Influence of annealing atmosphere on the electrical and spectral properties of Gd0.8Ca0.2BaCo2O5 ceramic," J Mater Sci2016.
  29. L. Li, B. Li, C. Zhang, C.-C. Tuan, Z. Lin, C.-P. Wong, "A facile and low-cost route to high-aspect-ratio microstructures on silicon via a judicious combination of flow-enabled self-assembly and metal-assisted chemical etching", Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4, 8953-8961.
  30. B. Song, K.S. Moon, C.P. Wong, “Recent Developments in Design and Fabrication of Graphene-Based Interdigital Micro-Supercapacitors for Miniaturized Energy Storage Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 2016, 6 (12), 1752-1765.
  31. B. Song, J.I. Choi, Y. Zhu, Z. Geng, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, C. Tuan, K.S. Moon, C.P. Wong, “Molecular Level Study of Graphene Networks Functionalized with Phenylenediamine Monomers for Supercapacitor Electrodes,” Chem. Mater., 2016, 28, 9110-9121.
  32. X.-G. Huang, J. Zhang, W.-F. Rao, T.-Y. Sang, B. Song, C.-P. Wong. "Tunable electromagnetic properties and enhanced microwave absorption ability of flaky graphite/cobalt zinc ferrite composites," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2016, 662, 409-414.
  33. X.-G. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Wang, T.-Y. Sang, B Song, H.-L. Zhu, W.-F. Rao, C.-P. Wong. "Effect of pH value on electromagnetic loss properties of Co-Zn ferrite prepared via coprecipitation method," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2016, 405: 36-41.
  34. H. Si, G. Lian, J. Wang, L. Li, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C. Wong, "Synthesis of few-atomic-layer BN hollow nanospheres and their applications as nanocontainers and catalyst support materials" ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2016, 8, 1578-1582.
  35. G. Lian, C. Tuan, L. Li, S. Jiao, Q. Wang, K. Moon, D. Cui, C. Wong, "Vertically aligned and interconnected graphene networks for high thermal conductivity of epoxy composites with ultralow loading," Chemistry of materials, 2016, 28, 6096-6104.
  36. J. Wang, G. Lian, Z. Xu, C. Fu, Z. Lin, L. Li, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C. Wong, "Growth of large-size SnS thin crystals driven by oriented attachment and applications to gas sensors and photodetectors," ACS Applied Materials & interfaces. 2016, 8, 9545-9551.
  37. Y. Geng, G. Lian, J. Wang, H. Si, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C. Wong, "Pressure-induced synthesis and evolution of ceria mesoporous nanostructures with enhanced catalytic performance," Crystal Growth & Design, 2016,16, 2466-2471.
  38. Y. Yao, X. Zeng, F. Wang, R. Sun, J.-b. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Significant Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity in Bioinspired Freestanding Boron Nitride Papers Filled with Graphene Oxide, Chem. Mater., 2016, 28, 1049-1057.
  39. B. Zhao, L. Jiang, X. Zeng, K. Zhang, M.M.F. Yuen, J.-B. Xu, X.-Z. Fu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, A highly thermally conductive electrode for lithium ion batteries, J.Materials Chemistry A, 2016, 4, 14595-14604.
  40. J. Cao, F. Wang, H. Yu, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, N. Zhao, C.-P. Wong, Porous PbI2 films for the fabrication of efficient, stable perovskite solar cells via sequential deposition, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 10223-10230.
  41. Y. Zhou, F. Wang, H.-H. Fang, M.A. Loi, F.-Y. Xie, N. Zhao, C.-P. Wong, Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 16191-16197.
  42. Y. Zuo, G. Wang, J. Peng, G. Li, Y. Ma, F. Yu, B. Dai, X. Guo, C.-P. Wong, Hybridization of graphene nanosheets and carbon-coated hollow Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 2453-2460.
  43. Z. Gong, G. Zhang, X. Zeng, J. Li, G. Li, W. Huang, R. Sun, C. Wong, High-Strength, Tough, Fatigue Resistant, and Self-Healing Hydrogel Based on Dual Physically Cross-Linked Network, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 8, 24030-24037.
  44. Y. Yao, X. Zeng, R. Sun, J.-B. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Highly Thermally Conductive Composite Papers Prepared Based on the Thought of Bioinspired Engineering, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 8, 15645-15653.
  45. Y. Yao, X. Zeng, G. Pan, J. Sun, J. Hu, Y. Huang, R. Sun, J.-B. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Interfacial Engineering of Silicon Carbide Nanowire/Cellulose Microcrystal Paper toward High Thermal Conductivity, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 8, 31248-31255.
  46. J. Li, S. Zhao, X. Zeng, W. Huang, Z. Gong, G. Zhang, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Highly Stretchable and Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on Facilely Prepared Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Composite, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 8, 18954-18961.
  47. H. Si, G. Lian, J. Wang, L. Li, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C.P. Wong, Synthesis of Few-Atomic-Layer BN Hollow Nanospheres and Their Applications as Nanocontainers and Catalyst Support Materials, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 8, 1578-1582.
  48. J. Wang, G. Lian, Z. Xu, C. Fu, Z. Lin, L. Li, Q. Wang, D. Cui, C.-P. Wong, Growth of Large-Size SnS Thin Crystals Driven by Oriented Attachment and Applications to Gas Sensors and Photodetectors, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 8, 9545-9551.
  49. J. Chen, X. Zhou, C. Mei, J. Xu, S. Zhou, C.-P. Wong, Evaluating Biomass-derived hierarchically porous carbon as the positive electrode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitors, J. Power Sources, 2017, 342, 48-55.
  50. F. Wang, X. Zeng, Y. Yao, R. Sun, J. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Silver Nanoparticle-Deposited Boron Nitride Nanosheets as Fillers for Polymeric Composites with High Thermal Conductivity, Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, 19394.
  51. Q.G. Chi, J.F. Dong, C.H. Zhang, C.P. Wong, X. Wang, Q.Q. Lei, Nano iron oxide-deposited calcium copper titanate/polyimide hybrid films induced by an external magnetic field: toward a high dielectric constant and suppressed loss, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 8179-8188.
  52. Y. Fang, J.G.D. Hester, B.M. deGlee, C.-C. Tuan, P.D. Brooke, T. Le, C.-P. Wong, M.M. Tentzeris, K.H. Sandhage, A novel, facile, layer-by-layer substrate surface modification for the fabrication of all-inkjet-printed flexible electronic devices on Kapton, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 7052-7060.
  53. Y. Hu, T. Zhao, P. Zhu, Y. Zhu, X. Shuai, X. Liang, R. Sun, D.D. Lu, C.-P. Wong, Low cost and highly conductive elastic composites for flexible and printable electronics, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 5839-5848.
  54. X. Zeng, L. Deng, Y. Yao, R. Sun, J. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Flexible dielectric papers based on biodegradable cellulose nanofibers and carbon nanotubes for dielectric energy storage, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 6037-6044.
  55. S. Zhao, J. Li, D. Cao, Y. Gao, W. Huang, G. Zhang, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Percolation threshold-inspired design of hierarchical multiscale hybrid architectures based on carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles for stretchable and printable electronics, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 6666-6674.
  56. J. Chen, X. Zhou, C. Mei, J. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Improving the sodiation performance of Na2Ti3O7 through Nb-doping, Electrochim. Acta, 2017, 224, 446-451.
  57. J. Chen, X. Zhou, C. Mei, J. Xu, S. Zhou, C.-P. Wong, Pyrite FeS2 nanobelts as high-performance anode material for aqueous pseudocapacitor, Electrochimica. Acta, 2016, 222, 172-176.
  58. Q. Xie, Y. Xu, Z. Wang, C. Xu, P. Zou, Z. Lin, C. Xu, C. Yang, F. Kang, C.-P. Wong, Vapor-Phase Polymerized Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) on a Nickel Nanowire Array Film: Aqueous Symmetrical Pseudocapacitors with Superior Performance, Plos One, 2016, 11, 11.
  59. B. Zhao, T. Wang, L. Jiang, K. Zhang, M.M.F. Yuen, J.-B. Xu, X.-Z. Fu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, NiO mesoporous nanowalls grown on RGO coated nickel foam as high performance electrodes for supercapacitors and biosensors, Electrochimica Acta, 2016, 192, 205-215.
  60. B. Zhao, Y.-T. Xu, S.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, M.M.F. Yuen, J.-B. Xu, X.-Z. Fu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, 3D RGO frameworks wrapped hollow spherical SnO2-Fe2O3 mesoporous nano-shells: fabrication, characterization and lithium storage properties, Electrochimica Acta, 2016, 202, 186-196.
  61. Y. Hu, T. Zhao, P. Zhu, Y. Zhu, X. Liang, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Tailoring Size and Coverage Density of Silver Nanoparticles on Monodispersed Polymer Spheres as Highly Sensitive SERS Substrates, Chem.- Asian J., 2016, 11, 2428-2435.
  62. J. Xia, J. Li, G. Zhang, X. Zeng, F. Niu, H. Yang, R. Sun, C. Wong, Highly mechanical strength and thermally conductive bismaleimide-triazine composites reinforced by Al2O3@polyimide hybrid fiber, Compos. Part a-Appl. S., 2016, 80, 21-27.
  63. Y.-J. Wan, W.-H. Yang, S.-H. Yu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, W.-H. Liao, Covalent polymer functionalization of graphene for improved dielectric properties and thermal stability of epoxy composites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2016, 122, 27-35.
  64. G. Li, G. Zhang, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Dually pH-responsive polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel composed of polyacrylic acid and poly (2-(dimthylamino) ethyl methacrylate), Polymer, 2016, 107, 332-340.
  65. T. Huang, X. Zeng, Y. Yao, R. Sun, F. Meng, J. Xu, C. Wong, Boron nitride@graphene oxide hybrids for epoxy composites with enhanced thermal conductivity, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 35847-35854.
  66. C. Li, S. Yu, S. Luo, W. Yang, Z. Ge, H. Huang, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Enhancement of dielectric performance upto GHz of the composites with polymer encapsulated hybrid BaTiO3-Cu as fillers: multiple interfacial polarizations playing a key role, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 36450-36458.
  67. L. Liu, J. Peng, G. Wang, Y. Ma, F. Yu, B. Dai, X.-H. Guo, C.-P. Wong, Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2@C@MnO2 multi-shelled hollow nanospheres with high rate capability and stability for lithium-ion batteries, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 65243-65251.
  68. H. Su, P. Zhu, L. Zhang, W. Zeng, F. Zhou, G. Li, T. Li, Q. Wang, R. Sun, C. Wong, Low cost, high performance flexible asymmetric supercapacitor based on modified filter paper and an ultra-fast packaging technique, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 83564-83572.
  69. Y.-J. Wan, S.-H. Yu, W.-H. Yang, P.-L. Zhu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, W.-H. Liao, Tuneable cellular-structured 3D graphene aerogel and its effect on electromagnetic interference shielding performance and mechanical properties of epoxy composites, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 56589-56598.
  70. F. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Zeng, T. Huang, R. Sun, J. Xu, C.-P. Wong, Highly thermally conductive polymer nanocomposites based on boron nitride nanosheets decorated with silver nanoparticles, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 41630-41636.
  71. J.-M. Chen, C.-Y. Chen, C.P. Wong, C.-Y. Chen, Inherent formation of porous p-type Si nanowires using palladium-assisted chemical etching, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2017, 392, 498-502.
  72. H. Chen, T. Zhao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, T. Zhou, D. Tang, C. Wong, Y.-F. Chen, D. Shen, Energy level systems and transitions of Ho:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by a narrow line-width Tm fiber laser, Opt. Express , 2016, 24, 27536-27545.
  73. J. Wang, S. Yu, S. Luo, B. Chu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Investigation of nonlinear I-V behavior of CNTs filled polymer composites, Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid , 2016, 206, 55-60.
  74. C. Li, Y.-T. Xu, B. Zhao, L. Jiang, S.-G. Chen, J.-B. Xu, X.-Z. Fu, R. Sun, C.-P. Wong, Flexible graphene electrothermal films made from electrochemically exfoliated graphite, J. Mater. Sci.,  2016, 51, 1043-1051.
  75. J. Zhang, G. Zhang, Y. Gao, R. Sun, C.P. Wong, Ultra-low-kappa HFPDB-based periodic mesoporous organosilica film with high mechanical strength for interlayer dielectric, J. Mater. Sci. , 2016, 51, 7966-7976.
  76. X. Zhao, L. Li, Y. Liu, C.-P. Wong, UVA-shielding silicone/zinc oxide nanocomposite coating for automobile windows, Polym. Composite., 2016, 37, 2053-2057.
  77. J. Li, G. Zhang, R. Sun, C.P. Wong, Three-Dimensional Graphene-Based Composite for Elastic Strain Sensor Applications, MRS Adv., 2016, 1, 2415-2420.
  78. J. Cao, F. Wang, H. Yu, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, N Zhao, C. Wong, Porous PbI2 films for the fabrication of efficient, stable perovskite solar cells via sequential deposition, J. Mater. Chem. A 2016, 4, 10223-10230.
  79. Y. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Fang, M. Loi, F. Xie, N. Zhao, C. Wong, Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance, J. Mater. Chem. A 2016, 4, 16191-16197.
  80. J. Chen, X. Zhou, C. Mei, J. Xu, S. Zhou, C. Wong, Pyrite FeS2 nanobelts as high-performance anode material for aqueous pseudocapacitor, Electrochimica Acta 2016, 222, 172-176.
  81. J. Chen, X. Zhou, C. Mei, J. Xu, C. Wong, Improving the sodiation performance of Na2Ti3O7 through Nb-doping, Electrochimica Acta,  2016, 224, 446-451.
  82. J. Chen, X. Zhou, C. Mei, J. Xu, S. Zhou, C. Wong, Evaluating biomass-derived hierarchically porous carbon as the positive electrode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitors, J. Power Sources 2017, 342, 48-55.

 Peer Reviewed Journal Papers in print (or accepted and in press) in 2015:

  1. C. Yang, X. Cui, Z. Zhang, S. Chiang, W. Lin, H. Duan, J. Li, F. Kang, and C.-P. Wong, “Fractal Dendrite-based Electrically Conductive Composites for Laser-scribed Flexible Circuits,” Nature Communications, 2015, 6.
  2. Z. Li, T. Le, Z. Wu, K.S. Moon, L. Li, Y. Yao, and C.P. Wong. “Rational design of printable, highly conductive silicone-based electrically conductive adhesives for stretchable radio-frequency antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater, 2015, 25.
  3. H. Si, G. Lian, A. Wang, D. Cui, M. Zhao, Q. Wang, C. P. Wong, “Large-Scale Synthesis of Few-Layer F-BN Nanocages with Zigzag-Edge Triangular Antidot Defects and Investigation of the Advanced Ferromagnetism,” Nano Letters, 2015, 15.
  4. B. Xie, C. Yang, Z. Zhang, P. Zou, Z. Lin, G. Shi, Q. Yang, F. Kang, C. P. Wong, “Shape-Tailorable Graphene-Based Ultra-High-Rate Supercapacitor for Wearable Electronics,” ACS Nano, 2015, 9.
  5. J. Wang, G. Lian, H. Si, Q. Wang, D. Cui, and C.-P. Wong, “Pressure-Induced Oriented Attachment Growth of Large-Size Crystals for constructing 3D Ordered Superstructures,” ACS Nano, 2016, 10.
  6. S. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Xiao, N. Zhao, C. P. Wong, “Low-temperature Ni particle-templated chemical vapor deposition growth of curved graphene for supercapacitor applications,” Nano Energy, 2015, 13.
  7. X. Lu, L. Li, B. Song, K.-S. Moon, N. Hu, G. Liao, T. Shi, and C.-P. Wong, “Mechanistic investigation of the graphene functionalization using p-phenylenediamine and its application for supercapacitors,” Nano Energy, 2015, 17.
  8. J. Chen, X. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C. P. Wong, “Template-grown graphene/porous Fe2O3 nanocomposite: A high-performance anode material for pseudocapacitors,” Nano Energy, 2015, 15.
  9. S. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Xiao, N. Zhao, C. P.  Wong, “Low-temperature Ni particle-templated chemical vapor deposition growth of curved graphene for supercapacitor applications”, Nano Energy, 2015, 13.
  10. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C. P. Wong, “Template-grown graphene/porous Fe2O3 nanocomposite: A high-performance anode material for pseudocapacitors,” Nano Energy, 2015, 15.
  11. P. Hao, Z. Zhao, Y. Leng, J. Tian, Y. Sang, R. I. Boughton, C.P. Wong, H. Liu, B. Yang, “Graphene-based nitrogen self-doped hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for high performance supercapacitors,” Nano Energy, 2015, 15.
  12. X. Lu, L. Li, B. Song, K.S. Moon, N. Hu, G. Liao, T. Shi, C.P. Wong. "Mechanistic investigation of the graphene functionalization using p-phenylenediamine and its application for supercapacitors," Nano Energy, 2015, 17.
  13. Y. T. Xu, Y. Guo, C. Li, X. Y. Zhou, M. C. Tucker, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Graphene oxide nano-sheets wrapped Cu2O microspheres as improved performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.” Nano Energy, 2015, 11.
  14. Z. Li, B. Song, Z. Wu, Z. Lin, Y. Yao, K.-S. Moon and C. P. Wong. “3D porous graphene with ultrahigh surface area for microscale capacitive deionization,” Nano Energy, 2015, 11.
  15. B. Song, L.  Li, Z. Lin, Z. Wu, K.S. Moon, and C.P. Wong. "Water-dispersible graphene/polyaniline composites for flexible micro-supercapacitors with high energy densities." Nano Energy, 2015, 16.
  16. H. Tang, C. Yang, Z. Lin, Q. Yang, F. Kang, C. P. Wong, “Electrospray-deposition of graphene electrodes: a simple technique to build high-performance supercapacitors,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  17. C. Y. Chen, C. P. Wong, “Unveiling the shape-diversified silicon nanowires made by HF/HNO3 isotropic etching with the assistance of silver,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  18. P. Hao, Z. Zhao, L. Li, C. C. Tuan, H. Li, Y. Sang, H. Jiang, C.P. Wong, H. Liu, “Hybrid Nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 Nanoneedle/Carbon Aerogel for Symmetric Supercapacitors with High Energy Density,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  19. C. Y. Chen, and C. P. Wong. “Unveiling the shape-diversified silicon nanowires made by HF/HNO3 isotropic etching with the assistance of silver,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  20. C.-Y. Chen, and C. P. Wong, “Unveiling the shape-diversified nanowires made by HF/HNO3 isotropic etching with the assistance of silver,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  21. X. Zeng, L. Ye, S. Yu, M. Lai, R. Sun, J. Xu and C. P. Wong. “Artificial nacre-like papers based on noncovalent functionalized boron nitride nanosheets with excellent mechanical and thermally conductive properties,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  22. Y. Zhang, P. Zhu, G. Li, W. Wang, L. Chen, D. Daniel Lu, R. Sun, F. Zhou, C. P. Wong, “Highly Stable and Re-dispersible Nano Cu Hydrosols with Sensitively Size-dependent Catalytic and Antibacterial Activities,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7.
  23. S. Zhao, Y. Gao, G. Zhang, L. Deng, J. Li, C. Zhi, R. Sun, C. P. Wong. “Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Multifunctional Porous N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Architectures for Flexible Conductors and Beyond,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2015, 7.
  24. H. M. Ren, Y. Guo, S. Y. Huang, K. Zhang, M.F. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, S. Yu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “One-step preparation of silver hexagonal microsheets as electrically conductive adhesive fillers for printed electronics,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015, 7.
  25. S. Zhao, Y. Gao, J. Lia, G. Zhang, R. Sun, C. P. Wong. “Facile preparation of folded structured single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid paper: Toward applications as flexible conductor and temperature-driven switch,” Carbon, 2015, 95.
  26. S. Zhao, Y. Gao, G. Zhang, L. Deng, J. Li, R. Sun, C. P. Wong. “Covalently bonded nitrogen-doped carbon-nanotube-supported Ag hybrids sponges: synthesis, structure manipulation, and its application for flexible conductors and strain-gauge sensors,” Carbon, 2015, 86.
  27. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C. P. Wong, “Facile and scalable fabrication of three-dimensional Cu(OH)(2) nanoporous nanorods for solid-state supercapacitors”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015, 3.
  28. Y. Guo, Y. T. Xu, B. Zhao, T. Wang, K. Zhang, M.F. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Urchin-like Pd@CuO-Pd yolk-shell nanostructures: synthesis, characterization and electrocatalysis,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015, 3.
  29. T. Wang, B. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. P. Yang, K. Zhang, M.F. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Electro-deposition of CoNi2S4 flower-like nanosheets on 3D hierarchically porous Ni skeletons with high electrochemical capacitive performance,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015,3.
  30. B. Song, C. Sizemore, L. Li, X. Huang, Z. Lin, K.S. Moon, and C.P. Wong. "Triethanolamine functionalized graphene-based composites for high performance supercapacitors." Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015, 43.
  31. J. Li, S. Zhao, G. Zhang, Y. Gao, L. Deng, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong. “A Facile Method to Prepare Highly Compressible Three-Dimensional Graphene-only Sponge.” Journal of Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3.
  32. J. Chen, J. Xu, S. Zhou, N. Zhao, C. P. Wong, “Facile and scalable fabrication of three-dimensional Cu(OH)(2) nanoporous nanorods for solid-state supercapacitors,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015, 3.
  33. J. Liu, C. Yang, P. Zou, R. Yang, C. Xu, B. Xie, Z. Lin, F. Kang, C. P. Wong, “Flexible copper wires through galvanic replacement of zinc paste: a highly cost-effective technology for wiring flexible printed circuits,” Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2015, 3. X. Zeng, Y. Yao, Z. Gong, F. Wang, R. Sun, J. Xu and C. P. Wong. “Ice-Templated Assembly Strategy to Construct 3D Boron Nitride Nanosheet Networks in Polymer Composites for Thermal Conductivity Improvement.” Small, 2015, 11.
  34. X. Huang, Z. Zhang, B. Song, Y. Deng, S. Liu, Y. Cui, G. Wang, C. P. Wong, “Facile solvothermal way to synthesize CuIn0.7Ga0.3S2 nanocrystals and their application in low-cost photovoltaic device, Journal of alloy and compound,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2015, 656.
  35. W. H. Yang, S. H. Yu, S. B. Luo, R. Sun, W. X. Liao and C.P. Wong, “A systematic study on electrical properties of the BaTiO3-epoxy composite with different sized BaTiO3 as fillers.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2015, 6.
  36. X. Huang, J. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Sang, B. Song, H. Zhu, C. P. Wong, “Facile preparation and microwave absorption properties of porous hollow BaFe12O19/CoFe2O4 composite microrods,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2015, 648.
  37. X. Huang, J. Zhang, Z. Liu, T. Sang, B. Song, H. Zhu, C.P. Wong. “Facile preparation and microwave absorption properties of porous hollow BaFe12O19/CoFe2O4 composite microrods,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2015, 648.
  38. L. Huang, P. Zhu, G. Li, F. Zhou, D. Lu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Spherical and flake-like BN filled epoxy composites: morphological effect on the thermal conductivity, thermo-mechanical and dielectric properties,” J Mater Sci: Mater Electron, 2015, 26.
  39. J. Li, G. Zhang, L. Deng, K. Jiang, S. Zhao, Y. Gao, R. Sun, C. P. Wong. “Thermally reversible and self-healing novolac epoxy resins based on Diels-Alder chemistry,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2015, 26.
  40. Y. Gao, S. Zhao, G. Zhang, L. Deng, J. Li, R. Sun, L. Li, C. P. Wong. “In situ assembly of dispersed Ag nanoparticles on hierarchically porous organosilica microspheres for controllable reduction of 4-nitrophenol,” J. Mater. Sci., 2015, 50.
  41. J. Qin, G. P. Zhang, R. Sun, G. M. Zhu and C.P. Wong, “Performance Research on the Curing Epoxy Resin Containing Non-coplanar Rigid Moieties,” Acta Polymerica Sinica, 2015, 3.
  42. Y. G. Hu, T. Zhao, P. L. Zhu, X. W. Liang, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Preparation of large micron-sized monodisperse polystyrene/silver core-shell microspheres with compact shell structure and their electrical conductive and catalytic properties,” RSC Advances, 2015, 5.
  43. S. B. Luo, S. H. Yu, F. Fang, M. B. Lai, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “Investigatingthe Mechanism of Catalytic Reduction of Silver Nitrate on the Surface of Barium Titanate at Room Temperature: Oxygen Vacancies Play a Key Role,”RSC Advances, 2015, 5.
  44. Z. Wu, Z. Lin, L. Li, B. Song, C. C. Tuan, Z. Li, K.S. Moon, S. L. Bai, and C. P. Wong, “Capacitance enhancement by electrochemically active benzene derivatives for graphene-based supercapacitors,” RSC Advances, 2015 5.
  45. Q. Guo, P. Zhu, G. Li, L. Huang, Y. Zhang, D. Lu, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong, “One-pot synthesis of bimodal silica nanospheres and their effects on the rheological and thermal-mechanical properties of silica-epoxy composites,” RSC Advances, 2015, 62.
  46. S. Zhao, Y. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong. “In situ synthesis of silver nanostructures on magnetic Fe3O4@organosilicon microparticles for rapid hydrogenation catalysis.” RSC Advances., 2015, 5.
  47. Y. Guo, L. Zhang, B. Zhao, K. Zhang, M.F. Yuen, J. B. Xu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “A novel solid-to-solid electrocatalysis of graphene oxide reduction on copper electrode,” RSC Advances 2015, 5.
  48. H. Jiang, Y. Guo, T. Wang, P. Zhu, S. Yu, Y. Yu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Electrochemical fabrication of Ni(OH)2/Ni 3D porous films as integrated capacitive electrodes,” RSC Advances 2015, 5.
  49. S. Luo, S. Yu, F. Fang, M. Lai, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “Investigating the Mechanism of Catalytic Reduction of Silver Nitrate on the Surface of Barium Titanate at Room Temperature: Oxygen Vacancies Play a Key Role,” RSC Advances., 2015, 5.
  50. J. Xia, G. Zhang, L. Deng, H. Yang, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong. “Flexible and enhanced thermal conductivity of Al2O3@Polyimide hybrid film via coaxial electrospinning,” RSC Advances, 2015, 5.
  51. Y. Ji, Q. Gan, L. Wu, J. Shang, C.-P. Wong, “Wafer Level Hermetic All-Glass Packaging for Micro Alkali Vapor Cells of Chip-Scale Atomic Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 2015, 99.
  52. L. Li, G. Zhang, and C.-P. Wong. "Formation of Through Silicon Vias for Silicon Interposer in Wafer Level by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching," IEEE Transaction on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 2015, 5.
  53. X Fang, Q Ding, L-Y Li, K-S Moon, C-P Wong and Z-T Yu, "Tunable thermal conduction character of graphite-nanosheets-enhanced composite phase change materials via cooling rate control," Energ. Convers. Manage., 2015, 103.
  54. L. Li, X. Zhao, and C.-P. Wong. "Charge Transport in Uniform Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Micro- and Nanofabrication on Silicon," ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., 2015, 4.
  55. Z. Wu, L. Li, Z. Lin, B. Song, Z. Li, K.S. Moon, C. P. Wong, and S. L. Bai, “Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.” Scientific Reports, 2015, 5.
  56. L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Zhu, F. Zhou, W. Zeng, D. Lu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Copper Salts Mediated Morphological Transformation of Cu2O from Cubes to Hierarchical Flower-like or Microspheres and Their Supercapacitors Performances,” Scientific Reports, 2015, 5.
  57. S. Y. Huang, B. Zhao, K. Zhang, M.F. Yuen, J. B. Xu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Enhanced reduction of graphene oxide on recyclable copper foils to fabricate graphene films with superior thermal conductivity,” Scientific Reports, 2015,5.
  58. F. Wang, X. Zeng, Y. Yao, R. Sun, J. Xu, and C. P. Wong. “Silver Nanoparticle-Deposited Boron Nitride Nanosheets as Fillers for Polymeric Composites with High Thermal Conductivity.” Scientific Reports, Accepted.
  59. B. Zhao, S. Y. Huang, T. Wang, K. Zhang, M.F. Yuen, J. B. Xu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 core-shell spheres encapsulated in three dimensional graphene foam for high performance supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources 2015, 298.
  60. T. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhao, S. Yu, H. P. Yang, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors,” Journal of Power Sources 2015, 286.
  61. Y. Guo, Y. T. Xu, G. H. Gao, T. Wang, B. Zhao, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Electro-oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol over hollow porous palladium nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity,” Catalysis Communications, 2015, 58.
  62. H. Jiang, Y. T. Xu, T. Wang, P. Zhu, S. Yu, Y. Yu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Nickel hexacyanoferrate flower-like nanosheets coated 3D porous Ni films as binder-free electrodes for neutral electrolyte supercapacitors,” Electrochimica Acta, 2015, 166.
  63. Y. T. Xu, Y. Guo, H. Jiang, X. B. Xie, B. Zhao, P. Zhu, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, “Enhanced performance of lithium ion batteries with copper oxide microspheres@graphene oxides micro/nano composite electrodes,” Energy Technology 2015, 3.
  64. Y. J. Wan, W. H. Yang, S. H. Yu, R. Sun, C. P. Wong, W. H. Liao, “Covalent polymer functionalization of graphene for improved dielectric properties and thermal stability of epoxy composites,” Composites Science and Technology, 2016, 122.
  65. X. Zeng, L. Ye, R. Sun, J. Xu, and C. P. Wong. “Observation of viscoelasticity in boron nitride nanosheet aerogel.” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2015, 17.
  66. X. Zeng, L. Ye, S. Yu, R. Sun, J. Xu and C. P. Wong. “Facile Preparation of Superelastic and Ultra low Dielectric Boron Nitride Nanosheet Aerogels via Freeze-Casting Process.” Chemistry of Materials, 2015, 27.
  67. A. J. McNamara, Y. Joshi, Z. Zhang, K. S. Moon, Z. Lin, Y. Yao, C. P. Wong, W. Lin, “Double-Sided Transferred Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Improved Thermal Interface Materials,” Journal of Electronic Packaging, 2015, 137.
  68. H. Wu, S. Chiang, C. Yang, Z. Lin, J. Liu, K.-S. Moon, F. Kang, B. Li, and C.-P. Wong, “Conformal Pad-Printing Electrically Conductive Composites onto Thermoplastic Hemispheres: Toward Sustainable Fabrication of 3-Cents Volumetric Electrically Small Antennas,” PLoS ONE, 2015, 10.
  69. H. Wu, S. Chiang, C. Yang, Z. Lin, J. Liu, K. S., Moon, F. Kang, B. Li, C. P. Wong, “Conformal Pad-Printing Electrically Conductive Composites onto Thermoplastic Hemispheres: Toward Sustainable Fabrication of 3-Cents Volumetric Electrically Small Antennas,” PLos One, 2015, 10

 2014

  1. L. Li, Z. Tao, W. He, and C. P. Wong, “Effects of Mn2+ on the Electrical Resistance of Electrolessly Plated Ni-P Thin-Film and Its Application as Embedded Resistor,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 25, 1341 (2014).
  2. G. Zhou, C.-Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Tao, W. He, and C. P. Wong, “Effects of MnSO4 on Microstructure and Electrical Resistance Properties of Electroless Ni-P Thin-Films And Its Application in Embedded Resistor inside PCB,” Circuit World, Vol. 40, 2, 45 (2014).
  3. G. Zhou, C.-Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Tao, W. He, and C. P. Wong, “Effect of MnSO4 on the Deposition of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus and Its Mechanism,” Electrochimica Acta, 127, 276 (2014).
  4. C.-Y. Chen, and C. P. Wong, “Shape-Diversified Silver Nanostructures Uniformly Covered on Aluminium Micro-Powders as Effective SERS Substrates,” Nanoscale 6, 811 (2014).
  5. C.-Y. Chen, L. Li, and C. P. Wong, “Evolution of Etching Kinetics and Directional Transition of Nanowires Formed on Pyramidal Micro-Textures,” Chem. Asian J. 9, 93 (2014).
  6. Y. Zhou, Y. Yao, C.-Y. Chen, K.-S., H. Wang, and C. P. Wong, “The Use of Polyimide-Modified Aluminum Nitride Fillers in Aln@PI/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity for Electronic Encapsulation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4779 (2014).
  7. S. Luo, S. Yu, F. Fang, M. Lai, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong, “Critical Interparticle Distance for the Remarkably Enhanced Dielectric Constant of BaTiO3-Ag Hydrbids Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 252903 (2014).
  8. S. Luo, S. Yu, R. Sun, and C. P. Wong, “Nano Ag-Deposited BaTiO3 Hybrid Particles as Fillers For Polymeric Dielectric Composits: Toward High Dielectric Constant And Suppressed Loss,” ACS Appl. Mat. Interf., 6, 176 (2014).
  9. Y. Liu, A. Das, Z. Lin, I. B. Cooper, A. Rohatgi, and C. P. Wong, “Hierarchical Robust Textured Structures for Large Scale Self-Cleaning Black Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Energy, 3, 127 (2014).
  10. Z. Lin, A. McNamara, Y. Liu, K.-S. Moon, and C. P. Wong, “Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride-Based Polymer Nanocomposite with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity for Electronic Encapsulation,” Composite Sci. and Tech., 90, 123 (2014).
  11. Y. Liu, Z. Lin, X. Zhao, C.-C. Tuan, K.-S. Moon, S. Yoo, M.-G. Jang, and C. P. Wong, “High Refractive Index and Transparent Nanocomposites as Encapsulant for High Brightness LED Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Comp. Pack. Manuf. Tech., 4, 1125 (2014).
  12. Y. Zhang, P. Zhu, L. Chen, G. Li, F. Zhou, D. Lu, R. Sun, F. Zhou, and C. P. Wong, “Hierarchical Architectures of Monodisperse Porous Cu Microspheres: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, High-Efficiency and Recyclable Catalytic Performance,” J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 11966 (2014).
  13. Z. Li, K.-S. Moon, Y.G. Yao, S. Wilkins, and C.-P. Wong. "Carbon nanotubes inhibit the free radical cross-linking of siloxane polymers," J. Applied Polymer Science, 131, 40355, (2014).
  14. S. B. Luo, S. H. Yu, R. Sun and C.-P. Wong, “Enhanced and Tailorable Dielectric Performance of Polymeric Composites with BaTiO3-supported Ag Nanoparticles as Fillers.” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6, 176-182 (2014).
  15. S. B. Luo, S. H. Yu, F. Fang, R. Sun, M. B. Lai and C.P. Wong, “Critical interparticle distance for the remarkably enhanced dielectric constant of BaTiO3-Ag hybrids filledpolyvinylidene fluoride composites.” Applied Physics Letters, 104, 252903 (2014).
  16. L. F. Lai, X. S. Su, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C. P. Wong. “The microstructure and properties of C and W co-doped NiCr embedded thin film resistors.”  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02578972. Surface and Coatings Technology Part C, 259, 759-766 (2014).
  17. Y. Guo, Y. T. Xu, G. H. Gao, T. Wang, B. Zhao, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Electro-oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol over hollow porous palladium nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity.” Catalysis Communications, 58, 40-45 (2014).
  18. S. Y. Huang, K. Zhang, M. M. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Facile synthesis of flexible graphene-silver composite papers with promising electrical and thermal conductivity performances.” RSC Advances, 4, 34156-34160 (2014).
  19. R. Q. Chen, P. L. Zhu, L. B. Deng, T. Zhao, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “Effect of Al-doping on the growth, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO nanorods,” Chem plus chem, 79, 743-750 (2014).
  20. Y. Zhang, P. L. Zhu, G. Li, T. Zhao, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun, F. Zhou and C.P. Wong, “Facile preparation of monodisperse, impurity-free and anti-oxidation copper nanoparticles in large scale for application in conductive ink.” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6, 560-567 (2014).
  21. P. L. Zhu, X. L. Chu, F. R. Zhou, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Synergistic Effect for the Preparation of LiMn2O4 Microspheres with High Electrochemical Performance.” RSC Advances, 4, 3293-3298 (2014).
  22. F. R.Zhou, P. L. Zhu, X. Z. Fu R. Q. Chen, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Comparative study of LiMnPO4 cathode materials synthesized by solvothermal methods using different manganese salts.” Cryst. Eng. Comm., 16, 766-774 (2014).
  23. P. L. Zhu, Q. Zheng, R. Sun, W. J. Zhang, J. H. Gao and C.P. Wong, “High dielectric and magnetic properties of BaTiO3/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 composite ceramics synthesized by a co-precipitation process.” J. Alloys and Compounds, 614, 289-296 (2014).
  24. Y. Zhang, P. L. Zhu, L. Chen, G. Li, F. R. Zhou, D. Q. Lu, R. Sun, F. Zhou and C. P. Wong, “Hierarchical architectures of monodisperse porous Cu microspheres: synthesis, growth mechanism, high-efficiency and recyclable catalytic performance.” J. Materials Chemistry, 2, 11966-11973 (2014).
  25. S. F. Zhao, G. P. Zhang, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “Curing kinetics, mechanism and chemorheological behavior of methanol etherified amino/novolac epoxy systems.” EXPRESS Polymer Letters. 8, 95-106 (2014).
  26. S. F. Zhao, G. P. Zhang, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Multifunctionalization of novolac epoxy resin and its influence on dielectric, thermal properties, viscoelastic, and aging behavior.” J. Applied Polymer Science, 131, 40157 (2014).
  27. J. Qin, G. P. Zhang, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “Synthesis of aromatic amine curing agent containing non-coplanar rigid moieties and its curing kinetics with epoxy resin.” J. Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 117, 831-843 (2014).
  28. L. Huang, P. L. Zhu, R. Sun, D. Q. Lu and C. P. Wong. “Core-shell SiO2@RGO hybrids for epoxy composites with low percolation threshold and enhanced thermo-mechanical properties.” J. Materials Chemistry, 2, 18246-18255 (2014).
  29. X. W. Liang, T. Zhao, Y. G. Hu, P. L. Zhu, R. Sun, D. Q. Lu and C.P. Wong, “CuCl2 and stainless steel synergistically assisted synthesis of high-purity silver nanowires on a large scale.” RSC Advances, 4, 47536-47539 (2014).
  30. J. H. Li, G. P. Zhang, L. B. Deng, S. F. Zhao, Y. J. Gao, K. Jiang, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “In situ polymerization and mechanical reinforced, thermal healable graphene oxide/polyurethane composites based on Diels-Alder chemistry.” J. Materials Chemistry A, 2, 20642-20649 (2014).
  31. Y. T. Xu, Y. Guo, L. X. Song, K. Zhang, M. F. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C. P. Wong, “Facile fabrication of reduced graphene oxide nano-sheets encapsulated copper spherical particles with 3D architecture and high oxidation resistance.” RSC Advances, 4, 58005-58010 (2014).
  32. S.Y. Huang, K. Zhang, M. M. F. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Facile synthesis of flexible graphene–silver composite papers with promising electrical and thermal conductivity performances.” RSC Advances, 4, 34156-34160 (2014).
  33. H. M. Ren, K. Zhang, M. M. F. Yuen, X. Z. Fu, R. Sun and C.P Wong, “Preparation and performance of Ag-coated Cu flakes filled epoxy as electrically conductive adhesives.” J. Solid State Lighting, 1, 10-16 (2014).
  34. S. F. Zhao, G. P. Zhang, Y. J. Gao, L. B. Deng, J. H. Li, R. Sun and C.P. Wong, “Strain-driven and Ultra-sensitive Resistive Sensor/Switch Basedon Conductive Alginate/Nitrogen-doped Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Ag Hybrid Aerogels with Pyramid Design.” ACS Applied Materials &Interfaces, 6, 22823-22829 (2014).
  35. M. Wang, H. Y. Chen, W. Lin, Z. Li, Q. Li, M. H. Chen, F. C. Meng, Y. J. Xing, Y. G. Yao, C. P. Wong, and Q. W. Li, “Crack-Free and Scalable Transfer of Carbon Nanotube Arrays into Flexible and Highly Thermal Conductive Composite Film”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, 539 (2014).
  36. Y. G. Yao, J. N. Tey, Z. Li, J. Wei, K. Bennett, A. McNamara, Y. Joshi, R. L. S. Tan, S. N. M. Ling, and C.P. Wong, “High-Quality Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Applications as Thermal Interface Materials”, Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on, 4, 232 (2014).
  37. L. Li, Y. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Lin, and C.-P. Wong, "Uniform Vertical Trench Etching on Silicon with High Aspect Ratio by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching Using Nanoporous Catalysts," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, 575-584 (2014).
  38. L. Li, X. Zhao, and C.-P. Wong. "Deep Etching of Single- and Polycrystalline Silicon with High Speed, High Aspect Ratio, High Uniformity, and 3D Complexity by Electric Bias-Attenuated Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching (EMaCE)," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, 16782-16791 (2014).
  39. P. Hao, Z. Zhao, J. Tian, H. Li, Y. Sang, G. Yu, H. Cai, H.  Liu, C. P. Wong, and A. Umar, "Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode". Nanoscale, 6, 12120-12129 (2014).
  40. X. Zhang, Z. Lin, B. Chen, W. Zhang, S. Sharma, W. Gu, and Y. Deng,  “<http://scholar.google.com/citations? view_op=view_citation&hl=en&user=rD8291EAAAAJ&sortby=pubdate&citation_for_view=rD8291EAAAAJ:9ZlFYXVOiuMC>Solid-state flexible polyaniline/silver cellulose nanofibrils aerogel supercapacitors”, J. Power Sources, 246, 283-289 (2014).
  41. Z. Lin, A. McNamara, Y. Liu, K.-S. Moon, and C.P. Wong, “<http://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_citation&hl=en&user=rD8291EAAAAJ&sortby=pubdate&citation_for_view=rD8291EAAAAJ:hC7cP41nSMkC>Exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride-based polymer nanocomposite with enhanced thermal conductivity for electronic encapsulation,” Composites Sci. and Tech. 90, 123-128 (2014).
  42. P. Yang, Y. Ding, Z. Lin, Z. Chen, Y. Li, P. Qiang, M. Ebrahimi, W. Mai, C.P. Wong, and Zhong Lin Wang, “<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl404008e>Low-Cost High-Performance Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on MnO2 Nanowires and Fe2O3 Nanotubes,”  Nano Lett. 14, 731-736 (2014).
  43. Z. Su, C. Yang, B. Xie, Z. Lin, Z. Zhang, J. Liu, B. Li, F. Kangand, and  C.P. Wong, “<http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2014/ee/c4ee01195c>Scalable fabrication of MnO2 nanostructure deposited on free-standing Ni nanocone arrays for ultrathin, flexible, high-performance micro-supercapacitor,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 2652-2659 (2014).
  44. J. Liu, C. Yang, H. Wu, Z. Lin, Z. Zhang, R. Wang, B. Li, F. Kang, L. Shi and C. P. Wong, “<http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2014/ee/c4ee01995d>Future Paper based Printed Circuit Boards for Green Electronics: Fabrication and Life Cycle Assessment,” Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3674-3682 (2014).
  45. P. Yang, Y. Li, Z. Lin, Y. Ding, S. Yue, C.P. Wong, X. Cai, S. Tan, and W. Mai, “<http://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_citation&hl=en&user=rD8291EAAAAJ&sortby=pubdate&citation_for_view=rD8291EAAAAJ:qUcmZB5y_30C>Worm-like amorphous MnO 2 nanowires grown on textiles for high-performance flexible supercapacitors,” J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 595-599 (2014).

2013

  1. Z. Y. Lin, T. R. Le, J. Song, Y. G. Yao, Z. Li, K. S. Moon, M. Tentzeris, C.P. Wong, "Preparation of Water-based Carbon Nanotube Inks and Application in the Inkjet Printing of Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors", Journal of Electronic Packaging, vol.135, No.1, pp.011001-011005 (2013).
  2. Z. Y. Lin, G. H. Wallera, Y. Liu, M. L. Liu, and C. P. Wong, “Nitrogen-doped Graphene Prepared by Pyrolysis of Graphene Oxide with Polypyrrole for Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction”, Nano Energy, Vol. 2, No.2, pp. 241–248 (2013).
  3. Y. G. Yao, L. Tolentino, Z. Z. Yang, X. J. Song, W. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, C. P. Wong, “High-concentration aqueous dispersions of MoS2”, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 23, No. 28, pp.3577–3583 (2013).
  4. Z. Li, R. Zhang, K. S. Moon, Y. Liu, K. Hansen, T. Le, C. P. Wong, “Highly Conductive, Flexible, Polyurethane-Based Adhesives for Flexible and Printed Electronics”, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 1459–1465 (2013).
  5. T. C. Wang, S. Kong, Y. Jia, L. Chang, C. P. Wong, D. S. Xiong, “Synthesis and Thermal Conductivities of the Biomorphic Al2O3 Fibers Derived from Silk Template”, International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, Vol. 10, No.2, pp 285–292, (2013).
  6. Y. G. Yao, L. Tolentino, Z. Z. Yang, X. J. Song, W. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and C. P. Wong, “Highconcentration aqueous dispersions of MoS2”, Adv. Func. Mater. Vol. 23, No.28, pp.3577-3583 (2013).
  7. O. Hildreth, C. Honrao, V. Sundaram, and C. P. Wong, “Combining Electroless Filling with Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching to Fabricate 3D Metallic Structures with Nanoscale Resolutions,” ECS Solid State Letters, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. P39-P41 (2013).
  8. O. Hildreth, K. Rykaczewski, A. Fedorov, and C. P. Wong, “A DLVO Model for Catalyst Motion in Metal-assisted Chemical Etching Based Upon Controlled Out-of-Plane Rotational Etching and Force-Displacement Measurements,” Nanoscale, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 961-970 (2013).
  9. Z Lin, Y Liu, S Raghavan, KS Moon, S Sitaraman, CP Wong "Magnetic Alignment of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Platelets in Polymer Matrix: Toward High Performance Anisotropic Polymer Composites for Electronic Encapsulation", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 5, No.15, pp. 7633–7640 (2013) 
  10. Z Lin, Z Li, K Moon, Y Fang, Y Yao, L Li, C Wong "Robust vertically aligned carbon nanotube-carbon fiber paper hybrid as versatile electrodes for supercapacitors and capacitive deionization" Carbon, Vol. 63, pp.547–553 (2013).
  11. C. Y. Chen, and C. P. Wong, “Morphological transition of Si surfaces from solid nanowires to porous nanobelts at room temperature”, Chem. Comm. Vol. 49, pp. 7295-7297 (2013).
  12. Z.Li, K. Hansen, Y. Yao, Y. Ma, K.-S.Moon, and C.P. Wong. “The conduction development mechanism of silicone-based electrically conductive adhesives”. J. Mater. Chem. C, Vol. 1,pp. 4368-4374 (2013)
  13. C. Yang, C.P. Wong and M. F. Yuen, “Printed electrically conductive composites: conductive filler designs and surface engineering” J. Mater. Chem. C, Vol.1, pp.4052-4069 (2013)
  14. T.C. Wang, S. Kong, Y. Jia, L.J. Chang, C.P. Wong, and D.S. Xiong, “Synthesis and thermal conductivities of the biomorphic Al2O3 fibers derived from silk template”, International Journal of Applied Ceramics Technology, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 285-292 (2013).
  15.  T.C. Wang, L.J. Chang, S. Yang, Y. Jia, and C.P. Wong, “Hydrophobic properties of biomorphic carbon surfaces prepared by sintering lotus leaves”, Ceramics International,Vol. 7, No. 39, pp. 8165-8172 (2013).
  16. G. Y. Zhou, W. He, S. X. Wang, C. Y. Chen and C. P. Wong, “Fabrication of a novel porous Ni–P thin-film using electroless-plating: Application to embedded thin-film resistor”, Materials Letters, Vol.108 pp.75–78(2013).

2012

  1. O. Hildreth, B. Cola, S. Graham, and C. P. Wong "Conformally coating vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays using thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl," Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B - Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 03D101 1-4 (2012).
  2.  O. Hildreth, K. Rykaczewski, and C. P. Wong, "Participation of Focused Ion Beam Implanted Gallium Ions in Metal-assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon," Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B - Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 040603 (2012).
  3.  O. Hildreth, A. G. Fedorov, and C. P. Wong, "3D Spirals with Controlled Chirality Fabricated Using Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon," ACS Nano, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 10004-10012 (2012).
  4.  O. Hildreth, K. Rykaczewski, A. Fedorov, and C. P. Wong, "A DLVO Model for Catalyst Motion in Metal-assisted Chemical Etching Based Upon Controlled Out-of-Plane Rotational Etching and Force-Displacement Measurements," Nanoscale (in press)
  5.  Y. Liu, A. Das, S. Xu, Z. Y.  Lin, C. Xu, Z. L. Wang, A. Rohatgi, and C. P. Wong, "Hybridizing ZnO Nanowires with Micropyramid Silicon Wafer as Self-cleaning High Efficiency Solar Cells",Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 47-51 (2012)
  6.  Y. Liu, W. Lin, Z. Y. Lin, Y. H. Xiu, and C. P. Wong, "A Combined Etching Process toward Robust Superhydrophobic SiC Surfaces", Nanotechnology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 255703 (2012).
  7.  Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, W. Lin, K. S. Moon, and C. P. Wong, "Reversible Superhydrophobic-Superhydrophilic Transition of ZnO Nanorod/Epoxy Composite Films", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 4, No. 8, pp 3959-3964 (2012)
  8.  Y. Liu, Z. Y. Lin, K. S. Moon, and C. P. Wong, "Superhydrophobic Nanocomposites Coating for Reliability Improvement of Microelectronics", IEEE Transactions on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, accepted.
  9.  Z. Y. Lin, M. K. Song, Y. Liu, M.L. Liu, C.P. Wong, "Facile Preparation of Nitrogen-doped Graphene as a Metal-free Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3381-3387 (2012).
  10.  Z. Y. Lin, G. H. Wallera, Y. Liu, M. L. Liu, and C. P. Wong, "Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-doped Graphene via Pyrolysis of Graphene oxide and Urea and its Electrocatalytic Activity toward Oxygen Reduction Reaction", Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 2, No.7, pp. 884-888 (2012).
  11.  Z. Y. Lin, G. Waller, Y. Liu, M. Liu, C. P. Wong, "Simple preparation of nanoporous few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene for use as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions". Carbon, Vol. 53, pp. 130-136 (2012).
  12.  Z. Y. Lin, T. R. Le, J. Song, Y. G. Yao, Z. Li, K. S. Moon, M. Tentzeris, C.P. Wong, "Preparation of Water-based Carbon Nanotube Inks and Application in the Inkjet Printing of Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors", Journal of Electronic Packaging, in press.
  13.  Z. Y. Lin, G. H. Wallera, Y. Liu, M. L. Liu, and C. P. Wong, "Nitrogen-doped Graphene Prepared by Pyrolysis of Graphene Oxide with Polypyrrole for Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction", Nano Energy, in press.
  14. Y. G. Yao, Z. Y. Lin, Z. Li, X. J. Song, K. S. Moon, C. P. Wong, "Large-scale Production of Two-Dimensional Nanosheets by Combined Low-Energy Ball Milling and Sonication", Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 22, pp. 13494-13499 (2012)
  15.  Y. G. Yao, C. P. Wong, "Monolayer Graphene Growth Using Additional Etching Process in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition", Carbon, Vol. 50, No. 14, pp. 5203-5209 (2012)
  16.  Y. G. Yao, L. Tolentino, Z. Z. Yang, X. J. Song, W. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, C. P. Wong, "High-concentration aqueous dispersions of MoS2", Advanced Functional Materials, in press.
  17.  Z. Li,   Y. Gao, K.-S. Moon, Y. Yao, A. Tannenbaum and C. P. Wong, "Automatic quantification of filler dispersion in polymer composites", Polymer, Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 1570-1580 (2012).
  18.  Z. Li, S. J. Wilkins, K.-S. Moon, and C. P. Wong, "Carbonnanotube/polymer nanocomposites: improved or reduced thermal stabilities?", Materials Science Forum, Vol.722,pp. 77-86, (2012).
  19. Z. Li, R. Zhang, K. S. Moon, Y. Liu, K. Hansen, T. Le, C. P. Wong "Highly Conductive, Flexible, Polyurethane Based Adhesives for Flexible and Printed Electronics", Advanced Functional Materials (in press).
  20. Y. Gao, Z. Li, Z. Y. Lin, L. J. Zhu, A. Tannenbaum, S. Bouix, C. P. Wong, "Automated dispersion and orientation analysis for carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites", Nanotechnology, Vol. 23, No.43, pp. 435706-435715 (2012)
  21. W. Lin, J. T. Shang, W. T. Gu, C. P. Wong, "Parametric study of intrinsic thermal transport in vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes using a laser flash technique". Carbon, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp.1591-1603 (2012).
  22. H. Ye, X. J. Wang, W. Lin, C. P. Wong and Z. M. Zhang, "Infrared absorption  coefficients of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films", Vol. 101, No. 14, pp. 141909 (2012).
  23. Y. H. Xiu, Y. Liu, B. Balu, D. W. Hess, and C. P. Wong, "Robust Superhydrophobic Surfaces Prepared with Epoxy Resin and Silica Nanoparticles", IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 2, No. 3,pp. 395-401 (2012).
  24. T. C. Wang, L. J. Chang, and C. P. Wong, "Thermal properties of carbon/epoxy resin composites based on the template of artificial sponge", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 560-561, pp 129-133 (2012)
  25. D. J. Yuan, W. Lin, R. Guo, C. P. Wong and S. Das, "The fabrication of vertically aligned and periodically distributed carbon nanotube bundles and periodically porous carbon nanotube films through a combination of laser interference ablation and metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition", Nanotechnology, Vol. 23, No. 21, pp. 215303 (2012).
  26. X. Wang, Y. Ding, D. J. Yuan, J. Hong, Y. Liu, C. P. Wong and Z. L. Wang, "Reshaping the Tips of ZnO Nanowires by Pulsed Laser Irridiation", Nano Research, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 412 (2012). 
  27. Y. Liu, A. Das, S. Xu, Z. Y. Lin, C. Xu, Z. L. Wang, A. Rohatgi, and C. P. Wong, “Hybridizing ZnO Nanowires with Micropyramid Silicon Wafer as Self-cleaning High Efficiency Solar Cells”, Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 47-51 (2012)

 2011

  1. C. Yang, M. F. Yuen, B. Gao, Y.H. Ma, and C. P. Wong. “Investigation of a Biocompatible Polyurethane-Based Isotropically Conductive Adhesive for UHF RFID Tag Antennas”, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 78-84 (2011)
  2. K. Rykaczewski, O. Hildreth, C. P. Wong, A. G. Fedorov, and J. H. Scott, “Guided Three-Dimensional Catalyst Folding during Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon”, Nano Letters, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 2369–2374 (2011)
  3. K. Rykaczewski, O. Hildreth, C. P. Wong, A. G. Fedorov, and J. H. Scott, “Directed 2D-to-3D Pattern Transfer Method for Controlled Fabrication of Topologically Complex 3D Features in Silicon”, Advanced Materials, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 659-663 (2011)
  4. Q. Z. Liang, X. X. Yao, W. Wang, Y. Liu and C. P. Wong, “A Three-Dimensional Vertically Aligned Functionalized Multilayer Graphene Architecture - An Approach for Graphene-based Thermal Interfacial Materials”, ACS Nano, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 2392–2401 (2011)
  5. Z. Y. Lin, Y. Liu, Y. G. Yao, O. Hildreth, Z. Li, K. S. Moon, J. Agar and C. P. Wong, “Superior Capacitance of Functionalized Graphene”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, No. 14, pp. 7120–712 (2011)
  6. Raghavan, S.;   Klein, K.;   Yoon, S.;   Joong-Do Kim;   Kyoung-Sik Moon;   Wong, C.P.;   Sitaraman, S.K., “Methodology to Predict Substrate Warpage and Different Techniques to Achieve Substrate Warpage Targets”, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology,  Vol. 1, No. 7, pp.1064 - 1074 (2011)
  7. O. J. Hildreth, D. Brown, and C. P. Wong, “3D Out-of-Plane Rotational Etching with Pinned Catalysts in Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon,” Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 3119-3128(2011).
  8. Z. Li, W. Lin, K.-S. Moon, S. J. Wilkins, Y. Yao, K. Watkins, L. Morato, and C. Wong, "Metal catalyst residues in carbon nanotubes decrease the thermal stability of carbon nanotube/silicone composites," Carbon, vol.49, No. 13, pp. 4138–4148 (2011)
  9. R. W. Zhang, W. Lin, K. S. Moon, Q. Z. Liang, and C. P. Wong “Highly Reliable Cu-based Conductive Adhesives Using an Amine Curing Agent for In Situ Oxidation/Corrosion Protection”, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 25-32 (2011)
  10. R. W. Zhang, K. S. Moon, W. Lin, J. C. Agar, C. P. Wong, “A simple and effective way to prepare highly conductive polymer composites by in situ reduction of silver carboxylate”, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 71, No. 4, pp. 528-534 (2011).
  11. J. T. Shang, B. Y. Chen, W. Lin, C. P. Wong, D. Zhang, C. Xu, J. W. Liu and Q. A. Huang, “Preparation of a Wafer-Level Glass Cavities by Low-Cost Chemical Foaming Process (CFP)”, Lab on a Chip, Vol. 11, pp. 1532-1540 (2011).
  12. Y. G. Yao, Z. Li, Z. Y. Lin, K. S. Moon, J. Agar, and C. P. Wong, “Controlled Growth of Multi-Layer, Few-Layer and Single-Layer Graphene on Metal Substrates”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, No.13, pp. 5232–5238 (2011)
  13. W. Lin and C. P. Wong, "Fast etching of copper in thionyl chloride/acetonitrile solutions", Corrosion Science, Vol. 53, No. 10, pp. 3055-3057 (2011). 
  14. C. Yang, H. Gu, W. Lin, M. M. F. Yuen, C. P. Wong, B. Gao, M. Xiong, “Silver Nanowires: from Scalable Synthesis to Foldable Recyclable Electronics”,   Advanced Materials, Vol. 23, pp. 3052-3056 (2011).

 

Donggang Yao

Professor
Yao

Contact Information

Office:
MRDC-1 4407
Phone:
404.894.9076
Fax:
404.894.9140

Dr. Donggang Yao is a Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. He teaches and directs research in the broad area of polymer engineering.

  1. D. Yao, "Constitutive modeling of complex interfaces based on a differential interfacial energy function", Rheologia Acta, Published online: 07 January 2011 (2011).
  2. P. Dai, W. Zhang, Y. Pan, J. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. Yao, "Processing of single polymer composites with undercooled polymer melt", Composites B: Engineering, In press (2011).
  3. P. Nagarajan and D. Yao, "Uniform shell patterning using rubber-assisted hot embossing process - Part I: Experimental", Polymer Engineering & Science, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 592-600 (2011).
  4. P. Nagarajan and D. Yao, "Uniform shell patterning using rubber-assisted hot embossing process - Part II: Process analysis", Polymer Engineering & Science, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 601-608 (2011).
  5. R. Li, D. Yao, Q. Sun, and Y. Deng, "Fusion bonding of supercooled poly(ethylene terephthalate) between Tg and Tm”, Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 119, No. 5, pp. 3101-3112 (2011).

Gleb Yushin

Professor
Yushin

Contact Information

Office:
Love 371
Phone:
404.385.3261
Fax:
404.894.9140

Gleb Yushin is a Professor of the School of Materials and Engineering at The Georgia Institute of Technology. He joined MSE in July 2007 and has received numerous awards and recognitions, including the Roland B. Snow Award from the American Ceramic Society, NASA Nano 50 Award, various best poster awards from the Electrochemical Society, Materials Research Society, and North American Membrane Society meetings, and multiple awards at ceramographic competitions.

Grad Students

Yushin

Pages

Selected Refereed Papers (out of > 60)

1.     I. Kovalenko, D. Bucknall, G. Yushin, Detonation Nanodiamond and Onion-like Carbon - Embedded Polyaniline for Supercapacitors, Advanced Functional Materials, 2010

2.     A. Magasinski, P. Dixon, B. Hertzberg, A. Kvit, J. Ayala, G. Yushin, High-Performance Lithium-Ion Anodes Using Hierarchical Bottom-up Approach, Nature Materials, 2010, 9 (4) p. 353-358.

3.     B. Hertzberg, A. Alexeev, G. Yushin, Deformations in Si-Li Anodes Upon Electrochemical Alloying in Nano-Confined Space, JACS Communications, Article ASAP, 2010, 132 (25), p. 8548

4.     Y. Korenblit, M. Rose, E. Kockrick, L. Borchardt, A. Kvit, S. Kaskel, G. Yushin, High-Rate Electrochemical Capacitors Based on Ordered Mesoporous Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon, ACS Nano, 2010, 4 (3), p. 1337-1344.

5.     A. Kajdos, F. Jones, A. Kvit, J. Jagiello, G. Yushin, Tailoring the Pore Alignment for Rapid Ion Transport in Microporous Carbon, JACS Communications, Article ASAP, 2010, 132 (1) p. 3252.

6.     S. Yachamaneni, G. Yushin, S.-H. Yeon, Y. Gogotsi, C. Howell, S. Sandeman, G. Phillips, S. Mikhalovsky, Mesoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon for Cytokine Removal from Blood Plasma, Biomaterials, 2010, 31(18) p. 4789-4794.

7.     M.V. Rybin, A.B. Khanikaev, M. Inoue, K.B. Samusev, M.J. Steel, G. Yushin, and M.F. Limonov, Fano Resonance between Mie and Bragg Scattering in Photonic Crystals. Physical Review Letters, 2009. 103(2):

8.     K.D. Behler, A. Stravato, V. Mochalin, G. Korneva, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, Nanodiamond-Polymer Composite Fibers and Coatings. ACS Nano, 2009. 3(2), p. 363-369.

9.     A.V.Baryshev, A.B. Khanikaev, M. Inoue, P.B. Lim, A.V. Sel'kin, G. Yushin, and M.F. Limonov, Resonant behavior and selective switching of stop bands in three-dimensional photonic crystals with inhomogeneous components. Physical Review Letters, 2007, 99(6).

10.  J. Chmiola, G. Yushin, Y. Gogotsi P, C. Portet, Simon, P.-L. Taberna, Anomalous increase in carbon capacitance at pore size below 1 nm, Science, 313, 2006 (no. 5794), p.1760-1763.

11.  G. Yushin, R.K. Dash, Y. Gogotsi, and J.E. Fischer, Enhanced Hydrogen Uptake by Carbide Derived Carbons with Optimized Pore Structure, Advanced Functional Materials, 2006, 16, p.2288-2293.

12.  S. Osswald, G. Yushin, V. Mochalin, S. Kucheyev, Y. Gogotsi, Control of sp2/sp3 carbon ratio and surface chemistry of nanodiamond powders by selective oxidation in air, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, p.11635-11642 (2006).

13.  G. Yushin, E.N. Hoffman, M.W. Barsoum, Y.Gogotsi, C.A. Howell, S.R. Sandeman, G.J. Phillips, A.W. Lloyd, and S.V. Mikhalovsky, Mesoporous carbide-derived carbon with porosity tuned for efficient adsorption of cytokines, Biomaterials, 2006, 27, p.5755-5762.

14.  Z.G. Cambaz, G. Yushin, Y. Gogotsi, and V.G. Lutsenko, Anisotropic Etching of SiC Wiskers, Nano Lett., 2006, 6 (3): p.548-551. (cover page image)

15.  Y. Gogotsi, R.K. Dash, G. Yushin, T. Yildirim, G. Laudisio, and J.E. Fischer, Tailoring of Nanoscale Porosity in Carbide-Derived Carbons for Hydrogen Storage. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127 (46), p.16006-16007.

 

Book Chapters
  1. G. Yushin, A. Nikitin, Y. Gogotsi, Carbide Derived Carbon, Ch. 8 in Nanomaterials Handbook, Ed. Y. Gogotsi, CRC Press, (2006).
  2. G. Yushin, A. Nikitin, Y. Gogotsi, Carbide Derived Carbon, Ch. 6 in Carbon Nanomaterials, Ed. Y. Gogotsi, CRC Press, (2206).

Meisha Shofner

Associate Professor & Associate Director, RBI
Shofner

Contact Information

Office:
MRDC-4409
Phone:
404.385.7216
Fax:
404.894.8780

Dr. Meisha L. Shofner is an Associate Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology, joining the faculty following post-doctoral training at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.  She received her B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and her Ph.D.

J.H. Lee, I.T. Kim, R. Tannenbaum, and M.L. Shofner, “Synthesis of Polymer-Decorated Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles with a Dispersed Copolymer Template”, Journal of Materials Chemistry22, 11556–11560 (2012).

M.R. Schlea, C.E Meree, R.A. Gerhardt, E.A. Mintz, and M.L. Shofner, “Network Behavior of Thermosetting Polyimide/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composites”, Polymer53, 1020-1027 (2012).

J. Kaur, J.H. Lee, and M.L. Shofner, “Influence of Polymer Matrix Crystallinity on Nanocomposite Morphology and Properties”, Polymer,52, 4337-4344 (2011).

R.D. Goodridge, M.L. Shofner, R.J.M. Hague, M.R. Schlea, R.B. Johnson, and C.J. Tuck, “Processing of a Polyamide-12/Carbon Nanofibre Composite by Laser Sintering”, Polymer Testing30, 94-100 (2011).

M.R. Schlea, T.R. Brown, J.R. Bush, J.M. Criss, E.A. Mintz, and M.L. Shofner, “Dispersion Control and Characterization in Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Phenylethynyl-Terminated Imide Composites”, Composites Science and Technology70, 822-828, (2010).

Kenneth Sandhage

Adjunct Professor

Dr. Ken H. Sandhage is the Reilly Professor of Materials Engineering. He received a B.S. (1981) in Metallurgical Engineering with highest distinction from Purdue University and a Ph.D. (1986) in Ceramics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Melony Ochieng

OUTLINE:

I. Shape-Preserving Chemical Transformation: “Materials Alchemy”

A.  Shape-Preserving Liquid/Solid Displacement Reactions
Example: High-Melting, Robust ZrC/W Rocket Nozzles via the “Displacive Compensation of Porosity” Process
B.  Shape-Preserving Gas/Solid Displacement Reactions
Example: Highly-Porous Si Films on Dense, Si Waveguides as IR Sensors via a Magnesiothermic Reduction Process
C.  Conformal Coating and Replication
Example: Porous Wall, Nanocrystalline TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Solar Cells and Other Electrode Applications

II. Bio-enabled, Chemically-Tailored, Hierarchically-Structured Materials

A.  Diatom-Enabled 3-D Materials
Example: #1. Si, C, TiO2, and Other Replicas via Gas/Solid Reactions for Battery and Fuel Cell Electrodes, Enzyme Supports, Sensors
Example: #2. Au Replicas via Conformal Electroless Deposition for Extraordinary Optical Transmission
B.  Butterfly-Enabled 3-D Materials
Example: Photoluminescent Eu-doped BaTiO3 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface Sol-Gel Coating and Hydrothermal Reaction for Anti-Counterfeiting and Tracking
C.  Pollen-Enabled 3-D Materials
Example: Magnetic Fe3O4 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface Sol-Gel Coating for Tailored Multimodal Adhesion
D.  Protein-Enabled Hybrid Coatings
Example: Enzyme/Oxide Coatings via Layer-by-Layer Protamine-based Deposition for Biocatalysis

 

RESEARCH DESCRIPTIONS:

I. Shape-Preserving Chemical Transformation: “Materials Alchemy”
Materials with complex three-dimensional (3-D) morphologies, and with tailorable micro-to-nanoscale structures and chemistries, are needed to achieve desired combinations of properties for enhanced performance in a host of energy, environmental, transportation, defense, and medical applications. However, materials that can be easily formed into a particular desired morphology often do not possess the required chemistry and finer scale structure needed for desired properties. This problem may be addressed by separating the shape-forming process from the chemical-tailoring process; that is, a solid structure with the desired shape (a “preform”) may first be generated with a readily-formed material and then a second, shape-preserving reaction process may be used to convert this preform into a new material with a desired chemistry and
micro/nanostructure. Several pioneering shape-preserving chemical transformation processes (see below) have been developed and patented by the Sandhage group to convert synthetic preforms (e.g., generated by 3-D printing or CNC machining) and biogenic preforms (e.g., diatom microshells, butterfly scales, pollen grains) into complex-shaped, chemically-tailored, micro/nanostructured materials with attractive properties. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another may be considered to be a modern type of materials “alchemy.” Several examples are presented below of the use of such processes to generate macroscale/microstructured and microscale/nanostructured materials with well-controlled chemistries and morphologies for particular applications.

A. Shape-Preserving Liquid/Solid Displacement Reactions: High-Melting, Robust ZrC/W Rocket Nozzles via the “Displacive Compensation of Porosity” Process


One of the most severe environments encountered by materials exists in the throat region of a solid-fueled rocket nozzle. Solid, aluminum-bearing fuels generate combustion products (molten Al2O3 droplets and gas) that impact the nozzles at supersonic speeds and at temperatures >2500oC. Under these extreme conditions, rocket nozzle materials need to exhibit minimal vaporization, erosion, and creep. Nozzle materials must also be highly resistant to thermal shock, given the rapid rise in temperature upon ignition. Conventional materials used for such solid-fuel nozzles include tungsten, rhenium, and carbon. Tungsten and rhenium are quite heavy, and all three materials are not highly erosion resistant at elevated temperatures.

Zirconium carbide/tungsten (ZrC/W) composites are attractive alternative materials for solid-fuel rocket nozzles. Zirconium carbide is a stiff, hard, high-melting (up to 3445oC) compound that is much lighter (6.6 g/cm3) than tungsten (19.3 g/cm3). Tungsten is also quite high-melting (3422oC) but undergoes a brittle-to-ductile transformation at ≤360oC. Hence, an interconnected ZrC network endows ZrC/W composites with high-temperature stiffness and reduced weight relative to monolithic W, whereas the high-temperature ductility of W provides higher resistance to fracture at elevated temperatures relative to monolithic ZrC. ZrC and W are also chemically and thermally compatible. ZrC and W possess low vapor pressures and exhibit limited mutual solid solubility at elevated temperature. Furthermore, these solids do not react to form other more stable compounds. Remarkably, ZrC and W possess similar thermal expansion coefficients at room temperature and at 2700oC, and both materials possess relatively high values of thermal conductivity. As a result, ZrC/W composites are highly resistant to thermal shock (unlike most ceramic/metal composites).

A pressureless reactive melt infiltration process developed and patented by Sandhage, et al. has been used to fabricate ZrC/W (and other) cermets into complicated near net-shape/size bodies. With this “Displacive Compensation of Porosity” (DCP) process, porous WC bodies (“preforms”) are first produced in the desired final 3-D shape via conventional forming (such as by pressing, slip casting, or gel casting) or via rapid prototyping methods (such as 3-D printing or CNC green machining). Once the porous WC preform has been fabricated into the desired final shape, it is then immersed in a bath of Zr2Cu liquid at 1150oC which wets and spontaneously infiltrates into the porous WC preform. Upon heating to 1300oC, the following displacement reaction proceeds to completion:

0.5Zr2Cu(l) + WC(s) => ZrC(s) + W(s) + 0.5Cu(l)

Because ZrC and W possess a combined volume about twice that of WC, the reaction results in filling of the prior pores within the rigid body (reaction-induced densification without sintering), thereby forcing the residual Cu-rich liquid back out of the composite; that is, the increase in solid volume due to the displacement reaction compensates for the prior pore volume (hence, the phrase “Displacive Compensation of Porosity”). As shown in Figures 1 and 2, porous 3-D WC parts have been fully converted into non-porous ZrC/W-based composites that retain the starting preform 3-D shape with very small dimensional changes (fractional changes <0.008).

 

Because this reaction process is rate-limited by outward solid-state diffusion of C from local WC particles through the ZrC/W reaction products, the time required to complete this reaction does not depend on the size of the preform, so that the DCP process is scalable to much larger parts than shown in Figure 2.


The DCP process is a proven means of producing dense, near net-shape/size, ZrC/W composites (and other cermets) in a variety of complex and tailorable 3-D shapes (e.g., rocket nozzles, nozzle liners, grooved plates, crucibles, etc.). These and other DCP-derived cermets possess an unusual combination of properties for extreme (e.g., highly erosive, high temperature, high thermal shock, corrosive) environments. Indeed, DCP-derived ZrC/W rocket nozzle liners (Figure 3) were found to be resistant to the extreme thermal shock and erosion of a solid-fueled Pi-K rocket test conducted at Edwards Air Force Base (in collaboration with Dr. Wes Hoffman).

B. Shape-Preserving Gas/Solid Displacement Reactions: Highly-Porous Si Films on Dense, Micropatterned Si Waveguides as IR Sensors via a Magnesio-thermic Reduction Process


Owing to its attractive optical and electrical properties, large surface-to-volume ratio, and ease of surface modification, porous silicon (pSi) has been extensively studied in a variety of applications, such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, optical switches, lithium ion batteries, and label-free optical detection of numerous analytes (bacteria, enzymes, viruses, DNA, gases). Conventionally, pSi films are fabricated by anodization of single crystal silicon wafers, leading to films possessing two-dimensional (2-D), cylindrical mesopores with thicknesses controlled by the anodization kinetics of doped silicon in HF-bearing solutions. The use of applied currents with HF-bearing solutions makes integration with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platforms difficult. Furthermore, such anodized pSi optical microcavities have exhibited modest quality factors.


The Sandhage group has developed and patented a magnesiothermic reaction process that yields pSi films with three-dimensionally-interconnected nanoporosity on SOI platforms that avoids the need for doped silicon, applied currents, or HF-bearing solutions. With this process, unpatterned SOI substrates are first oxidized to yield a SiO2 thin film of well-controlled thickness. The silica film is then allowed to undergo the following magnesiothermic displacement reaction:

SiO2(s) + 2Mg(g) => 2MgO(s) + Si(s)

The resulting product film is comprised of an intimate mixture of nanocrystalline MgO and Si phases that form as co-continuous networks. This reaction process has been thermodynamically designed to allow for reaction of the Mg(g) with only the SiO2 film (i.e., not with the underlying Si substrate), so that the thickness of the pSi film can beprecisely controlled via adjustment of the starting SiO2 film thickness (which is itself tailorable to within ∼1 nm by controlled thermal oxidation of silicon). Selective acid dissolution of the continuous MgO phase then yields a 3-D-interconnected network of nanosized pores and an interconnected network of nanocrystalline Si (Figure 4).

 

After selective MgO dissolution, the resulting pSi-clad Si specimens were patterned into pSi-clad optical resonators (Figure 5) in collaborative research with the Adibi group (School of Electrical and Computer Engineering) at Georgia Tech. The pSi-clad SOI racetrack microresonators consisted of a ∼120 nm thick pSi cladding on a ∼520 nm wide by ∼230 nm tall silicon waveguide (Figure 5b). This geometry was chosen to ensure single-mode operation under transverse electric (TE) polarization (electric field in the device plane) at 1550 nm, while maintaining a reasonably high Q-factor and wide free spectral range. The thin pSi cladding enables a higher loading of analyte molecules within the evanescent tail of the optical mode. Indeed, the large internal specific surface area (≥500 m2/g) associated with uniformly-distributed, nanoscale pores in the pSi film formed by this process provides for greater adsorption of small analytes for enhanced detection sensitivity, while the thin, uniform nature of the pSi films allows for high Q-factors and high spectral resolution.

The TE transmission spectra of such a pSi-clad racetrack resonator and a reference racetrack resonator lacking pSi are shown in Figure 6a and b, respectively. The full-

 

width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the resonance at 1550 nm for the pSi-clad and reference resonators were ∼70 pm and ∼65 pm, respectively, which corresponded to loaded Q-factors of 22,000 and 24,000, respectively. To quantitatively evaluate the enhanced analyte adsorption resulting from the increased surface area of the pSi cladding, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayers were deposited on pSi- bearing and reference resonators. Ellipsometric analysis indicated that the deposited APTES thickness was ∼9.2 ± 1 Å. After APTES deposition, the redshift in resonance wavelength (Figures 6d and c) for the pSi-clad resonator (∼679.6 pm) was ∼6 times larger than for the reference resonator (∼112.9 pm). The APTES-induced redshift for the pSi-bearing resonator corresponded to a sensitivity of ∼0.8 pm/(pg/mm2). With the Q-factor of the pSi-clad microresonator being 22,000 and a reasonably assumed spectral resolution of ∼1 pm, the detection limit of the present pSi-clad sensor, in terms of deposited molecule thickness, was estimated to be ∼0.01 Å, which is an order of magnitude better than previously- reported for anodization-derived pSi optical sensors. As a further test of enhanced sensitivity with the pSi cladding, a layer of N-hydroxy-succinimidobiotin (NHS-Biotin) was applied via succinimide-crosslinking to the amine-terminated APTES monolayer on both devices. The thickness of the NHS-Biotin layer was determined to be ∼3.5 ± 1 Å by ellipsometry (using a refractive index of 1.46). The measured resonance wavelength redshift for the pSi resonator (∼183.9 pm) was again about 6 times greater than for the reference resonator (∼28.8 pm) (Figures 6d and c). Such integrated pSi-bearing SOI microresonator sensors may be applied for the sensitive, reliable, rapid, low-cost, lab-on-chip detection of a variety of potential analytes. This magnesiothermic reaction process and platform may also be applied to devices involving other light-matter interactions (such as nonlinear optics, switching, etc.) for various applications.

C. Conformal Coating and Replication: Porous Wall, Nanocrystalline TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Solar Cells and Other Electrode Applications

High-aspect-ratio transition metal oxide nanotube arrays with a high density of well-aligned pore channels and high surface areas can be attractive structures for use in a number of chemical, electrical, electrochemical, optical, photochemical, and biochemical devices, such as high-throughput (photo)catalysts or adsorbants, aligned electrodes for solar cells or batteries, sensitive and rapid gas detectors, precise fluid flow control devices, or functionalized membranes for selective (bio)molecular separation.

The Sandhage group has developed an aqueous, protein-enabled, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition process for generating aligned nanotube arrays comprised of nanocrystalline oxides with a high degree of interconnected porosity present within the tube walls. With this process, repeated alternating exposure of an aligned-nanochannel template to the protein and then to a water-soluble precursor salt is used to build up a conformal protein/oxide composite coating of a desired thickness. Upon subsequent pyrolysis of the protein, a coating comprised of a co-continuous network of pores and oxide nanoparticles is formed. Selective dissolution of the underlying template through the interconnected pore network of the coating then yields freestanding, high-aspect-ratio, porous-wall nanotube arrays. Unlike gas-phase atomic layer deposition, this protein-based process does not require the use of vapor precursors, controlled atmospheres, or vapor-generating equipment. Furthermore, this biomimetic mineralization process does not utilize moisture-sensitive precursors (e.g., the alkoxides used in sol-gel processing) and does not require hydroxyl-rich templates or multistep surface functionalization treatments (for enriching templates with hydroxyl groups) needed for the surface sol-gel-based deposition of continuous and conformal coatings.

Prior work by the Sandhage group (in collaboration with the Naik group at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) involving the use of bacteriophage display biopanning has indicated that 12-mer peptides enriched in basic residues (arginine, lysine, histidine) were particularly effective at binding to titania and at inducing the formation of relatively high yields of Ti-O-bearing precipitates at room temperature from an aqueous titania precursor-bearing (Ti(IV) bisammonium-lactato-dihydroxide, TiBALDH) solution. Protamine, a relatively inexpensive and readily-available arginine-rich protein harvested from a variety of fish (e.g., salmon, herring, trout, and tuna), has also been found by the Sandhage group to be capable of binding to silica and titania, and of inducing the formation of conformal Ti-O-bearing coatings from a TiBALDH-bearing solution. This prior work has led the Sandhage group to develop an aqueous protamine-based LbL coating process for generating high-aspect-ratio, aligned nanotube arrays composed of porous, yet interconnected titania nanoparticles.

A porous anodic alumina membrane was used as the template for such nanotube generation. The aligned pore channels running through this membrane are revealed in the top-down and cross-sectional images in Figures 7a and b, respectively. Such a membrane was exposed to 8 protamine/TiBALDH cycles to buildup a continuous and conformal protamine/TiO2 coating on the external and internal alumina surfaces. Secondary electron images of the coated template are shown in Figures 7c and d. The cross-section in Figure 7d reveals a continuous coating on the alumina template. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses of such coated surfaces revealed peaks for Ti and O (consistent with titania), N and C (consistent with protamine), but not for Al, which indicated that the protamine/Ti-O-bearing composite coating completely covered the template surface. The protamine/Ti-O-coated alumina membranes were then heated to 650°C in air for 3 h to allow for water removal, organic pyrolysis, and titania crystallization. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a relatively large weight loss (∼44%) from about 200°C to 475°C, which indicated that appreciable protamine was entrained along with titania in the deposited coating. The appreciable interconnected porosity generated throughout the titania coating upon protamine pyrolysis at 650°C allowed for subsequent penetration of a sodium hydroxide solution for selective dissolution of the underlying alumina template. The structural interconnectivity of the titania nanoparticle network in the fired coating resulted in freestanding, high-aspectratio titania nanotube arrays (9.9 μm length:34 nm wall thickness = 291:1) upon removal of the alumina template. The titania nanotube arrays were then transferred to transparent, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. Prior to attachment of a given nanotube array to such a substrate, the FTO layer was coated with a thin layer of titania nanoparticle-bearing paste. After mating the nanotube array to the coated FTO/glass substrate, the assembly was heated in air to 500°C for 1 h to pyrolyze the organic material in the paste and to sinter-bond the titania nanotube array to the titania nanoparticle-coated FTO/glass substrate. Side-view secondary electron images of a titania nanotube array attached to a FTO/glass substrate are shown in Figures 8. The higher magnification image in Figure 8b indicates that the freestanding titania tubes were comprised of a porous, yet interconnected network of nanoparticles with diameters of ∼15–20 nm. 

 

X-ray diffraction analysis of the tubes (Figure 9a) yielded peaks for anatase titania. Scherrer analysis of the anatase diffraction peaks yielded an average crystallite size of 15 nm, which indicated that the titania crystals and titania particles seen in Figure 8b were of comparable size. Transmission electron microscope images (Figures 9b and c) indicated that the freestanding titania nanotubes were composed of a porous network of nanoparticles with sizes on the order of 10–20 nm (consistent with Scherrer analysis). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (Figure 9d) and selected area electron diffraction analysis (Figure 9e) yielded lattice fringes and ring patterns, respectively, consistent with nanocrystalline anatase titania.

 

Experiments were then conducted to evaluate the extent of adsorption of a ruthenium-based dye onto the porous nanotube arrays. A N719 dye (cis di(thiocyanato)-N-N’-bis(2,2’-bipyridyl-4-carboxylic acid-4’-tetrabutylammonium carboxylate) ruthenium (II)) was allowed to adsorb onto the porous titania nanotubes for a period of 24 h. The dye was then desorbed from the nanotubes by immersing the assembly in a 100 mM NaOH solution. The concentration of the dye in this solution was evaluated via measurement of the absorbance of the solution at 513 nm and comparison to calibration solutions of known N719 content. The average N719 dye loading was found to be 1.63 x 10-4 mol/g (normalized to the weight of titania in the nanotube assembly), which was more than twice the amount of such N719 ruthenium dye adsorbed onto dense wall titania nanotube arrays (7.42 x 10-5 mol/g) prepared via a sol-gel infiltration process.

This work demonstrates that protamine’s ability to bind to alumina and titania, as well as its ability to induce the room temperature precipitation of a Ti-O-bearing coating from an aqueous precursor solution, enables the layer-by-layer syntheses of aligned high-aspect-ratio titania nanotube arrays composed of co-continuous networks of pores and titania nanoparticles. These nanotube arrays exhibit: i) enhanced loading of functional molecules (resulting from the interconnected pores in the freestanding nanotube walls), ii) highly-aligned pore channels (resulting from the lateral connectivity of the conformal titania coating deposited at the top and bottom faces of the aligned pore template), and iii) anisotropic electrical conductivity (enabled by the interconnected titania nanoparticle These inherent characteristics of protein-enabled nanotube arrays make them attractive for use as electrodes (solar cells, batteries), sensors, adsorbants, (photo)catalysts, and other electrochemical, photochemical, or biochemical devices.

II. Bio-enabled, Chemically-Tailored, Hierarchically-Structured Materials

A second major research thrust of the Sandhage group is the bio-enabled syntheses of materials (via the use of biogenic templates and/or biomolecules) with unprecedented combinations of complex chemistry and complex hierarchical (nano-to-macroscale) structure. Nature provides impressive examples of organisms capable of forming organic and inorganic structures with intricate and controlled three-dimensional (3-D) hierarchical (nanoscale-to-macroscale) morphologies. For example, certain butterflies and beetles generate chitinous scales with intricate 3-D structures for exquisite control of color (so-called “structural color”). Among the most versatile of organisms for generating complex inorganic structures are diatoms, a type of aquatic single-celled algae. Each diatom species forms a SiO2-bearing microshell (frustule) with a particular 3-D shape and with specific patterns of fine features (pores, ridges, channels, protuberances, etc.). Owing to the species-specific nature of diatom SiO2 structure formation, a rich variety of 3-D microshell morphologies can be found among the estimated 104-105 extant diatom species. The sustained reproduction (repeated doubling) of a given species of diatom can yield enormous numbers of daughter diatoms with similarly-shaped frustules (e.g., 80 reproduction cycles corresponds to 280 ≈ 1.2 × 1024 = twice Avogadro’s number of frustule copies). Such massively-parallel, direct, and precise (genetically-controlled) self-assembly of structures with a wide selection of 3-D nano-to-microscale morphologies under ambient conditions has no analogue among synthetic self-assembly processes. However, the SiO2-based chemistry of diatom microshells, and the chitin-based chemistry of butterfly and beetle scales, severely limit the properties and range of applications for such biogenic structures.

The Sandhage group has pioneered and patented several approaches for altering the chemistries, while retaining the 3-D hierarchical morphologies, of these biologically-derived structures. By coupling the impressive structure-formation capabilities (massively-parallel, genetically-precise, 3-D self-assembly) of biological organisms with the wide range of non-naturally-occurring synthetic chemistries (via the Biological Assembly and Shape-preserving Inorganic Conversion or BASIC paradigm), a rich variety of functional, bio-enabled hierarchically-structured materials may be generated, as illustrated in the following examples.

A. Diatom-Enabled 3-D Materials: Si, C, TiO2, and Other Replicas via Gas/Solid Reactions for Battery and Fuel Cell Electrodes, Enzyme Supports, and Sensors

While diatoms generate a wide variety of selectable, species-specific hierarchical structures that can be attractive for particular uses in energy, environmental, and sensing applications, the SiO2-based chemistry of such structures does not provide the desired electrical, catalytic, and adsorptive properties desired for such applications. To overcome this limitation, the Sandhage group has developed and utilized a variety of shape-preserving reactions (gas/solid, liquid/solid, solid/solid reactions) to convert diatom silica (and synthetic silica) structures into replicas comprised of other functional materials, including Si, C, SiC, MgO, TiO2, ZrO2, BaTiO3, Eu-doped BaTiO3, and Mn-doped Zn2SiO4. For example, the following magnesiothermic reaction has been used to completely convert such SiO2 structures into MgO/Si replicas:

SiO2(s) + 2Mg(g) => 2MgO(s) + Si(s)

Selective acid dissolution of the MgO product then yielded a highly-porous, nanocrystalline Si replica (Figure 10a) of the starting diatom SiO2 microshell. The specific surface area of the Si replica was 540 m2/g (i.e., more than 300 times greater than for the starting SiO2 microshell). The porous Si replica was then converted into a porous C replica (Figure 10b) of even higher surface area (1370 m2/g) via the following series of reactions:

Si(s) + CH4(g) => SiC(s) + 2H2(g)

SiC(s) + 2Cl2(g) => C(s) + SiCl4(g)

TiO2 frustule replicas (Figure 10c) have been synthesized via the following sequential gas/solid reactions:

SiO2(s) + 2TiF4(g) => 2TiOF2(s) + SiF4(g)

TiOF2(s) + H2O(g) => TiO2(s) + 2HF(g)

 

The use of such shape-preserving reactions to generate Si, SiC, C, TiO2, and other replicas of such biogenic (as well as synthetic) structures has been pioneered and patented by the Sandhage group.

The ability to generate such open, porous, 3-D hierarchical structures comprised of nanocrystalline Si, C, TiO2, and other functional materials with a wide variety of selectable, well-controlled morphologies is quite unique and highly attractive for electrodes (e.g., for lithium ion batteries or fuel cells), catalysts/catalyst supports, sensors, filtration media, and other devices. For example, Pt was deposited onto/into the C frustule replicas with the use of Pt(CO)2Cl2 vapor, and the electrocatalytic behavior of the resulting nanocrystalline Pt/C frustule replicas (Figure 11a, b) for the oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated in an oxygen-saturated 0.5 M H2SO4 solution using a rotating disk electrode (via collaboration with Liu, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Georgia Tech). The performance of the Pt-bearing C frustule replicas (CF) was compared with that of Pt-bearing C derived from SiC powder (CS) and Pt-bearing Vulcan XC-72R carbon (CV) black (note: the microparticle content deposited onto the working electrode was adjusted to achieve a similar amount of total platinum loading for each type of carbon microparticle). As can be seen in Figure 11c, the steady-state current for the Pt-bearing C frustule electrode was significantly higher than for the Pt/CS and Pt/CV electrodes. Such enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-bearing C frustule replicas for the oxygen reduction reaction was consistent with the presence of a higher population of very fine (<2 nm diameter) Pt nanoparticles (Figure 11b) and a reduced oxygen diffusion distance (due to the hollow nature and thin wall inherited from the starting diatom frustule, Figure 11a) for these microparticles than for the Pt/CS and Pt/CV microparticles. That is, synergistic use of the bio-enabled hierarchical frustule structure with the new synthetic Pt/C chemistry and nanostructure yielded enhanced electrocatalytic performance.

Such control over 3-D morphology and chemistry/nanostructure allows for the tailoring of fluid (gas or liquid) transport through, and nanoparticle dispersions within, highly porous carbon structures for enhanced catalysis, filtration, intercalation, or adsorption for numerous applications, such as in energy storage and harvesting, sensing, water purification, carbon sequestration, and (bio)chemical separation.

B. Diatom-Enabled 3-D Materials: Au Replicas via Conformal Electroless Deposition for Extraordinary Optical Transmission

Nanocrystalline plasmonic materials, such as gold or silver, can exhibit remarkable optical and chemical properties if fabricated in an appropriate structure. For example, gold or silver films possessing patterned arrays of pore channels can exhibit appreciable light transmission even if the pore channel diameters are appreciably smaller than the wavelength of the transmitted light. Such surface plasmon-enabled “extraordinary optical transmission” is strongly affected by the pore channel pattern and spacing. To evaluate the utility of patterned pore structures generated by diatoms for such light transmission, the Sandhage group (in collaboration with the Perry group, School of Chemistry & Biochemistry at Georgia Tech) has examined the conversion of diatom SiO2 frustules into replicas comprised of nanocrystalline Au and other metals. The frustules of the Coscinodiscus asteromphalus diatom (cultured in the Sandhage laboratory) were selected, owing to the quasi-periodic pore pattern present on such frustules (Figure 12). To allow for electroless gold deposition, the surfaces of the silica

 

frustules were first functionalized with a high density of catalyst particles. A thin, conformal, and continuous layer of nanocrystalline gold was then deposited onto the frustules during immersion in an electroless gold plating solution. The underlying silica template was then removed by selective dissolution through occasional pinholes in the metal coating. Secondary electron images of the resulting high-fidelity gold replica of the C. asteromphalus frustule are shown in Figure 13. An

 

optical image of the gold frustule replica, and the transmission of infrared light through the replica, are shown in Figure 14. A range of IR wavelengths, centered about 4.3 um (peak transmission of 13%) could be transmitted through this frustule, even though the average pore channel diameter was well below 4 um (on the order of 1 um). Such multiwavelength extraordinary IR transmission resulted from the synergistic use of a bio-enabled structure and the shape-preserving conversion of such a structure into a nanocrystalline gold replica. Bio-enabled structures of this type can be attractive for optical filtering, sensing, catalysis, and other applications.

 

C. Butterfly-Enabled 3-D Materials: Photoluminescent Eu-doped BaTiO3 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface-Sol-Gel Coating and Hydrothermal Reaction for Anti-Counterfeiting and Tracking

Certain butterflies, moths, and beetles exhibit impressive control of color through the use of hierarchically-patterned 3-D chitinous structures. To expand the range of optical properties exhibited by such structures, the Sandhage group has developed strategies for converting such assemblies into functional inorganic replicas that retain the intricate biogenic morphologies. For example, such chemical conversion has been applied to the scales within the blue-green stripes on the dorsal forewings and hindwings of the Papilio blumei butterfly (Figure 15). Bright field optical images of these stripes (Figure 15a inset) reveal overlapping tapered scales with typical lengths of about 200 um and maximum widths of about 100 um. Each individual scale (Figure 15b) contained elevated ridges running parallel to the scale length, with shallow concave depressions lying between the ridges. The hydroxyl-rich nature of the chitin that comprises such scales enabled the highly-conformal, layer-by-layer coating of such scales with titania via the surface sol-gel process, using a computer-automated deposition system developed by the Sandhage group. After 50 deposition cycles, the coated scales were heated in air to 450oC for 4 h to allow for pyrolysis of the chitin template and crystallization of the TiO2. The resulting TiO2 replicas were then converted into Eudoped BaTiO3 replicas via microwave hydrothermal reaction with a solution of europium and barium acetates at 140oC. As shown in Figures 15c and d, the converted (allinorganic) scales retained the raised ridges and shallow concave depressions of the native P. blumei scales along with the overall tapered scale shape.

Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the patterned photoluminescence of the Eu-doped BaTiO3 P. blumei scale replicas. A fluorescence image (488 nm excitation with a long-pass 585 nm filter), a transmission optical image (543 nm light), and a composite (fluorescence + transmission) image of a Eu-doped BaTiO3 scale replica are shown in Figure 16. The fluorescence image of the Eu-doped BaTiO3-converted scale clearly revealed the tapered scale shape and parallel microscale ridge pattern of the P. blumei scales. The similarities between the

fluorescence and transmission optical images were consistent with a relatively uniform distribution of Eu throughout the replica. The utility of such 3-D Eu-doped BaTiO3 structures for unobtrusive labelling of white paper was then examined. A bright field optical image, and an associated fluorescence image, of the same scales on white filter paper are shown in Figure 17. The inset images shown in these figures were obtained with the scales placed on a glass slide. A 3-D topographical color map of Eu-doped BaTiO3 scale replicas on the filter paper, generated from a series of stacked confocal dark field images, is also shown in Figure 17c. The topographical map revealed that the inorganic scale replicas were able to bend so as to conform well to the surface of the filter paper. Such conformality, along with white color of both the scales and the filter paper, made detection of the scale replicas on the filter paper difficult in visible light, as seen in the bright field image of Figure 17a. However, the presence of such scales was readily detected in the fluorescence image of Figure 17b.

This 3-D morphology-preserving chemical conversion process provides a means of generating patterned photoluminescent inorganic structures with an enormous variety of morphologies derived from (bio)organic templates and tailorable color(s) (via doping of BaTiO3 with one or more lanthanides) for unobtrusive, yet highly-distinct labelling of documents or goods for tracking or anticounterfeiting purposes.

C. Pollen-Enabled 3-D Materials: Magnetic Fe3O4 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface Sol-Gel Coating for Tailored Multimodal Adhesion

Adhesion by or on microparticles plays a critical role in a wide range of developing and mature technologies, including drug delivery, catalysis, water/chemical purification, sensing, antifouling coatings and membranes, semiconductor device processing, composite processing, paints, printing, and xerography. Microparticles with rough surfaces and nonspherical shapes are desired for a number of such technologies. However, the scalable fabrication of microparticles with well-controlled surface asperities in a variety of three-dimensional (3D) morphologies and with tailorable chemistries to allow for tunable adhesion remains a difficult synthetic challenge. A rich sustainable source of 3-D microparticles, with complex morphologies affecting dispersion and adhesion in nature, is pollen. Pollen particles come in a wide variety of 3-D shapes and species-specific surface topographies and are produced in large and increasing quantities worldwide by plants. Because the exine (outer layer) of pollen grains is composed of sporopollenin (a complex polymer consisting of carboxylic acids and aromatic moieties cross-linked with aliphatic chains), the pollen surfaces are enriched with hydroxyl groups that provide an abundance of reaction sites for the chemisorption of alkoxide precursors during a surface sol-gel-coating process.

A computer-automated, layer-by-layer, surface sol-gel process has been developed by the Sandhage group to convert the sporopollenin-based exine of pollen grains into magnetic Fe3O4 replicas. Secondary electron images of a starting cleaned sunflower pollen grain are shown in Figure 18a. The sunflower pollen grains were roughly spherical in shape and possessed echini (spines) of relatively high aspect ratio (height/width-at-mid-height ratio of ∼5:1). A secondary electron image of a sunflower pollen particle after exposure to 30 surface sol-gel Fe-O deposition cycles is shown in Figure 18b. The highly conformal nature of the surface sol-gel Fe-O-bearing coating was evident from the preservation of the echini and the fine pores at the base of the echini (as indicated by the arrows in Figure 18b). The coated pollen particles were then heated in air at 600°C for 4 h to allow for pyrolysis of the pollen template and crystallization of the oxide coating. Complete pyrolysis of the sporopollenin during this treatment was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Although smaller in diameter than the starting as-coated pollen particles, these hematite particles retained the 3-D shapes and surface features of the starting pollen grains (Figure 18c). Indeed, the high-fidelity nature of such replication was revealed by images of the same particle before (Figure 18b) and after (Figure 18c) the 600°C/4 h treatment. (Note that the arrows in Figures 18b and c reveal the same spine and fine pore present before and after this thermal treatment.) Conversion of these hematite (Fe2O3) replicas into magnetite (Fe3O4) was conducted via use of a thermal treatment with a Rhines pack. An excess powder mixture of iron and magnetite was sealed along with hematite pollen replicas

within a mild steel ampule. The ampule was then heated to 550°C for 2 h. The oxygen partial pressure established within the ampule by the Fe/Fe3O4 equilibrium at 550°C allowed for complete conversion of the replica particles into phase-pure nanocrystalline magnetite, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scherrer analyses yielded an average magnetite crystallite size of 34 nm. Secondary electron images (Figure 18d) indicated that the 3-D morphology and sharp echini of the sunflower pollen were retained by the magnetite replicas. (Note that the arrows in Figures 18c and d show the same spine and fine pore before and after this Rhines pack thermal treatment.)

To allow for quantitative evaluation of the adhesion of the magnetite pollen replicas to various substrate surfaces, single replica particles were attached to AFM cantilevers (Figure 19a). Contact mode AFM measurements were then used (in collaboration with the Meredith group in the School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at Georgia Tech) to evaluate the short-range (van der Waals-based) and long range (magnetic) adhesion of such particles to a variety of substrates, including Si and an axially-poled Nd-Fe-B alloy coated with a thin foil of Ni. As revealed in Figure 19b, a similar short-range van der Waals adhesion force of ∼40 nN was observed for the Fe3O4 sunflower pollen particle in contact with either the Si substrate or the Ni-coated Nd-alloy magnet substrate. However, an appreciable additional magnetic attractive force of ∼40 nN was detected between the ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 sunflower pollen replica and the disk-shaped Ni-coated Nd-alloy substrate at locations near the outer edge of this substrate, which is where the magnetic field intensity associated with this magnetized Ni-Nd substrate was the highest. The magnetic interaction between the Fe3O4 sunflower pollen replicas and the magnetized edge of the Ni-coated Nd-alloy substrate persisted out to a separation distance of ∼1 mm.

This work demonstrates that a highly-conformal, layer-by-layer, surface sol-gel-coating process can be used along with controlled modest-temperature thermal treatments to convert pollen particles into nanocrystalline ferrimagnetic (Fe3O4 ) replicas exhibiting multimodal adhesion via short-range van der Waals-based attraction and short-to-longrange (up to ∼1 mm) magnetic attraction. The wide variety of 3-D particle shapes and surface topographies available from pollen generated by different plants and the ability of this coating process to produce high-fidelity nanocrystalline replicas with controlled amounts of magnetic oxide (by adjusting the number of deposition cycles) allows for the syntheses of pollen-derived microparticles with highly tailorable multimodal adhesion.

D. Protein-Enabled Hybrid Coatings: Enzyme/Oxide Coatings via Layer-by-Layer Protamine-Based Deposition for Biocatalysis

The protamine-enabled, layer-by-layer deposition process discussed above has also been utilized to generate functional enzyme/oxide coatings. In collaboration with the Kröger group (now at B CUBE Center for Molecular Bioengineering, Dept. Chemistry & Food Chemistry, Technical University of Dresden), a protamine-enabled process has been developed for the controlled immobilization of the model enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx), on Stöber silica substrates. Protamine (PA) molecules were covalently linked toGOx using the amine-reactive homobifunctional crosslinking molecule, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate. At pH 7, the resulting hybrid molecule, GOx-PA, exhibited a positive zeta potential (ζ = + 5.1 ± 1.0 mV) unlike the GOx molecule alone (ζ = –2.9 ± 1.6 mV). The layer-by-layer deposition process was then conducted with the use of positively-charged PA or GOx-PA molecules as the binding and mineralizing agents for a given deposition cycle. Coatings with silica (using a freshly-prepared silicic acid precursor from acid hydrolysis of TMOS) or titania (using a TiBALDH precursor) were examined. The influence of the position of the hybrid GOx-PA molecule within 5 layers of deposited coating on the activity of the enzyme (relative to the free GOx-PA molecule in solution) is shown in Figure 20. The activities of the different enzyme-bearing samples were dependent on both the particular layer location in which the enzyme was immobilized and the oxide composition of the coating. The activity of the enzyme increased as the enzyme was placed in layers located closer to the outer surface and was modestly higher in Si-O-bearing coatings as compared to Ti-O-bearing coatings. Indeed, GOx-PA immobilized in the fourth of five Si-O-bearing layers (specimen Si4 in Figure 20) exhibited essentially the same activity as the enzyme in solution, although a lower activity level resulted when the enzyme was immobilized in Ti-O-bearing coatings (specimen Ti4). The higher apparent enzymatic activity of the Si-O-bearing coatings, for the same layer position within the coating, was attributed to an enhanced rate of glucose diffusion through the Si-O-bearing coatings, due to the higher meso- and macroporosity values and reduced thickness, of Si-O-bearing coatings relative to the Ti- O-bearing coatings.

To investigate the effect of GOx-PA immobilization within a nanoscale mineral-bearing coating on the thermal stability of the enzyme, Si4 and Ti4 coated particles (i.e., GOx- PA immobilized in the fourth of five layers of Si-O- or Ti-O-coated silica spheres) were incubated at 65°C. Over a period of 48 h, aliquots were periodically removed and assayed for GOx activity. A rapid decrease in enzymatic activity for GOx-PA in solution was observed (Figure 21a), with a complete loss of activity after 90 min, which wasconsistent with previous results observed for the thermal denaturation of GOx in solution. In contrast, GOx-PA immobilized in Si-O and Ti-O retained 41.4 ± 7.5% and 21.9 ± 1.7% activity, respectively, after 90 min. Even after 3 h of incubation at 65°C, immobilized GOx-PA still exhibited 27.6 ± 4.0% (Si4) and 16.4 ± 2.8% (Ti4) of the original activity (Figure 21a). These data demonstrated that GOx-PA molecules immobilized inside Si-O and Ti-O nanoscale coatings were substantially stabilized against thermal denaturation. Inside the oxide films, protein unfolding (with an associated increase in protein volume) may be inhibited, thus stabilizing the native conformation and activity of the enzyme. To test whether this mechanism played a role in thermal stabilization of GOx-PA molecules immobilized within Ti-O-bearing and Si-Obearing coatings, protease accessibility experiments were performed. GOx-PA-bearing Ti4 and Si4 particles and free GOx-PA were exposed for 24 h to pronase (a highlyactive unspecific protease mixture). While >75% of free GOx-PA in solution was degraded, >81% of the immobilized GOx-PA molecules remained active in the Ti4 and Si4 samples (Figure 21b). This indicated that GOx-PA molecules were largely inaccessible within the Si-O and Ti-O nanoscale coatings, consistent with the enzyme being contained with nanoscale cavities.

This work demonstrates that a protein-enabled layer-by-layer coating process, involving the use of a properly-modified and properly-distributed functional enzyme within a nanoscale bio-organic/inorganic composite coating, can allow for full retention of enzymatic activity while providing enhanced stability against thermal and biochemical (protease) degradation. It is envisioned that this general strategy may be utilized togenerate functional and robust biomolecule-bearing nanoscale composite coatings for a variety of highly-demanding (bio)technological applications.

SELECTED JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS SINCE 2000 (185 TOTAL PUBLICATIONS)

  1. B. Cocilovo, O. Herrera, S. Mehravar, Y. Fang, K. H. Sandhage, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, “Surface-Enhanced Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence of Various Fluorophores Evaluated Using a Multiphoton Microscope,” J. Lightwave Technol., accepted, in press.
  2. I. J. Gomez, W. B. Goodwin, D. Sabo, Z. J. Zhang, K. H. Sandhage*, J. C. Meredith*, “Three-Dimensional Magnetite Replicas of Pollen Particles with Tailorable and Predictable Multimodal Adhesion,” J. Mater. Chem. C, 3 (3) 632-643 (2015).
  3. M. Lai, C. D. Hermann, R. Olivares-Navarrete, A. Cheng, R. A. Gittens, M. Walker, Y. Cai, K. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, Z. Schwartz, B. D. Boyan, “Role of a2b1 Integrins in Mediating Cell Shape on Microtextured Titanium Surfaces,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, 103A (2) 564-573 (2015).
  4. K. Kieu, C. Li, Y. Fang, G. Cohoon, O. D. Herrera, M. Hildebrand, K. H. Sandhage, R. A. Norwood, “Structure-based Optical Filtering by the Silica Microshell of the Centric Marine Diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii,” Optics Express, 22 (13) 15992-15999 (2014).
  5. M. B. Barta, J. H. Nadler, Z. Kang, B. K. Wagner, R. Rosson, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kahn, “Composition Optimization of Scintillating Rare-Earth Nanocrystals in Oxide Glass-Ceramics for Radiation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Optics, 53 (16) D21-D28 (2014).
  6. R. A. Gittens, R. Olivares-Navarrete, S. L. Hyzy, K. H. Sandhage, Z. Schwartz, B. D. Boyan, “Osteoblast Growth on Micro/Nanorough Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium Alloy Surfaces Triggers Alternate Integrin Expression Profile,” Connective Tissue Res., 55 (S1) 164-168 (2014).
  7. V. Singh, T. L. Bougher, A. Weathers, Y. Cai, K. Bi, M. T. Pettes, S. A. McMenamin, W. Lu, D. P. Resler, T. R. Gattuso, D. H. Altman, K. H. Sandhage, L. Shi, A. Henry, B. A. Cola, “High Thermal Conductivity of a Chain-Oriented Amorphous Polythiophene,” Nature Nanotechnol., 9 (5) 384-390 (2014).
  8. Z. Xia, S. C. Davis, Ali A. Eftekhar, A. S. Gordin, Murtaza Askari, Qing Li, Farshid Ghasemi, K. H. Sandhage*, A. Adibi*, “High-Sensitivity Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Microresonator Sensors Clad with Thin Magnesiothermically-Formed Porous Silicon,” Adv. Optical Mater., 2 (3) 235-239 (2014).
  9. W. B. Goodwin, I. J. Gomez, Y. Fang, J. C. Meredith, K. H. Sandhage, “Conversion of Pollen Particles into Three-Dimensional Ceramic Replicas Tailored for Multimodal Adhesion,” Chem. Mater., 25 (22) 4529-4536 (2013).
  10. S. C. Davis, V. C. Sheppard, G. Begum, Y. Cai, Y. Fang, J. D. Berrigan, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid Flow-through Biocatalysis with High Surface Area, Enzyme-loaded Carbon and Gold-bearing Diatom Frustule Replicas,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 23 [36] 4611-4620 (2013).
  11. B. S. Cook, Y. Fang, S. Kim, T. Le, W. B. Goodwin, K. H. Sandhage, M. M. Tentzeris, “Inkjet Catalyst Printing and Electroless Copper Deposition for Low-Cost Patterned Microwave Passive Devices on Paper,” Electron. Mater. Lett., 9 [5] 669-676 (2013).
  12. M. B. Dickerson, W. Lyon, W. E. Gruner, P. A. Mirau, M. L. Jespersen, Y. Fang, K. H. Sandhage, R. R. Naik, “Unlocking the Latent Antimicrobial Potential of Biomimetically Synthesized Inorganic Materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 23 [34] 4236-4245 (2013).
  13. A. Xing, J. Zhang, K. Chen, Z. Bao, Y. Mei, A. S. Gordin, K. H. Sandhage, “A Magnesiothermic Reaction Process for the Scalable Production of Mesoporous Silicon for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,” Chem. Commun., 49 (60) 6743-6745 (2013).
  14. R. A. Gittens, R. Olivares-Navarrete, A. Cheng, D. M. Anderson, T. McLachlan, I. Stephan, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, K. H. Sandhage, A. G. Fedorov, F. Rupp, B. D. Boyan, R. Tannenbaum, Z. Schwartz, “The Roles of Titanium Surface Micro/Nanotopography and Wettability on the Differential Response of Human Osteoblast Lineage Cells,” Acta Biomater., 9 (35) 6268-6277 (2013).
  15. Y. Kim, M. Kathaperumal, O. Smith, M.-J. Pan, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, J. W. Perry, “High Energy Density Sol-Gel Thin Film based on Neat 2-Cyanoethyltrimethoxysilane,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 5 (5) 1544-1547 (2013).
  16. J. D. Berrigan, T. McLachlan, J. R. Deneault, Y. Cai, T.-S. Kang, M. F. Durstock, K. H. Sandhage, “Conversion of Porous Anodic Al2O3 into Freestanding, Uniformly-Aligned Multi-wall TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Electrode Applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A, 1 (1) 128-134 (2013).
  17. K. Chen, Z. Bao, J. Shen, G. Wu, B. Zhou, K. H. Sandhage, “Freestanding Monolithic Silicon Aerogels,” J. Mater. Chem., 22 [32] 16196-16200 (2012).
  18. D. W. Lipke, Y. Zhang, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Intragranular Tungsten/Zirconium Carbide Nanocomposites via a Selective Liquid/Solid Displacement Reaction,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 [9] 2769-2772 (2012).
  19. J. P. Vernon, N. Hobbs, A. Lethbridge, P. Vukusic, D. D. Deheyn, K. H. Sandhage, “3-D Photoluminescent Lanthanide-doped Barium Titanate Structures Synthesized by Coating and Shape-preserving Reaction of Complex-shaped Bioorganic Templates,” J. Mater. Chem., 22 (21) 10435-10437 (2012). (Inside Front Cover)
  20. R. A. Gittens, R. Olivares-Navarrete, T. McLachlan, Y. Cai, S. L. Hyzy, J. M. Schneider, Z. Schwartz, K. H. Sandhage, B. D. Boyan, “Differential Responses of Osteoblast Lineage Cells to Nanotopographically-Modified, Microroughened Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium Alloy Surfaces,” Biomater., 33 (35) 8986-8994 (2012).
  21. Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, K. H. Sandhage, “Biologically-enabled Syntheses of Freestanding Metallic Structures Possessing Subwavelength Pore Arrays for Extraordinary (Plasmon-Mediated) Infrared Transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 22 [12] 2550-2559 (2012). (Back Cover)
  22. H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, Y. Fang, Y. Cai, H. Li, A. Sigdel, J. Meyer, J. Maibach, A. Dindar, Y. Zhou, J. Berry, J.-L. Bredas, A. Kahn, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Oriented Growth of Al2O3:ZnO Nanolaminates for Use as Electron-Selective Electrodes in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 22 [7] 1531-1538 (2012).
  23. Y. Fang, J. D. Berrigan, Y. Cai, S. R. Marder, K. H. Sandhage, “Syntheses of Nanostructured Cu- and Ni-based Micro-assemblies with Selectable 3-D Hierarchical Biogenic Morphologies,” J. Mater. Chem., 22 (4) 1305-1312 (2012). (Highlighted in Editors’ Choice section of the Jan. 20, 2012 edition of Science)
  24. D. K. Hwang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. D. Berrigan, Y. Fang, J. Kim, W. J. Potscavage, Jr., H. Cheun, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Solvent and Polymer Matrix Effects on TIPS-Pentacene/Polymer Blend Organic Field-Effect Transistors,“ J. Mater. Chem., 22, 5531-5537 (2012).
  25. Z. Bao, M.-K. Song, S. Davis, Y. Cai, M. Liu, K. H. Sandhage, “Bio-enabled Syntheses of Hollow, High Surface Area, Micro/mesoporous Carbon Particles with Selectable 3-D Biogenic Morphologies for Tailored Catalysis, Filtration, or Adsorption,” Energy Environ. Sci., 4 (10) 3980-3984 (2011).
  26. N. R. Haase, S. Shian, K. H. Sandhage, N. Kröger, “Biocatalytic Nanoscale Coatings Through Biomimetic Layer-by-Layer Mineralization,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 21 (22) 4243-4251 (2011).
  27. H. Cheun, J. D. Berrigan, Y. Zhou, M. Fenoll, J. Shim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Roles of Thermally-induced Vertical Phase Segregation and Crystallization on the Photovoltaic Performance of Bulk Heterojunction Inverted Polymer Solar Cells,” Energy Env. Sci., 4 (9) 3456-3460 (2011).
  28. S. Kim, Y. Bastani, H. Lu, W. King, S. R. Marder, K. H. Sandhage, A. Gruverman, E. Riedo, N. Bassiri-Gharb, “Direct Patterning of Arbitrary-Shaped Ferroelectric Nanostructures on Platinized Silicon and Glass Substrates,” Adv. Mater., 23 (33) 3786-3790 (2011). (Inside Front Cover)
  29. J. D. Berrigan, T.-S. Kang, Y. Cai, J. R. Deneault, M. F. Durstock, K. H. Sandhage, “Protein-Enabled Layer-by-Layer Syntheses of Aligned, Porous-Wall, High-Aspect-Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 21, 1693-1700 (2011). (Inside Front Cover)
  30. R. A. Gittens I., T. McLachlan, Y. Cai, S. Berner, R. Tannenbaum, Z. Schwartz, K. H. Sandhage, B. D. Boyan, “The Effects of Combined Micron-/Submicron-scale Surface Roughness and Nanoscale Features on Cell Proliferation and Differentiation,” Biomater., 32, 3395-3403 (2011).
  31. H. Cheun, J. B. Kim, Y. H. Zhou, Y. Fang, A. Dindar, J. Shim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide as the Electron-Collecting Electrode,” Optics Express, 18 [104] A506-A512 (2010).
  32. J. P. Vernon, Y. Fang, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Morphology-preserving Conversion of a 3D Bio-organic Template into a Nanocrystalline Multicomponent Oxide Compound,” Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed., 49, 7765-7768 (2010).
  33. K. H. Sandhage, “Materials ‘Alchemy’: Shape-preserving Chemical Transformation of Micro-to-Macroscopic 3-D Structures,” JOM, 62 [6] 32-43 (2010).
  34. S. Shian, K. H. Sandhage, “Hexagonal and Cubic TiOF2,” J. Appl. Crystall., 43 [4] 757-761 (2010).
  35. B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of Large Area, Highly Ordered, Crack Free Inverse Opal Films,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 107 [23] 10354-10359 (2010).
  36. D. W. Lipke, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. C. Church, K. H. Sandhage, “Near Net Shape/Net Dimension ZrC/W-based Composites with Complex Geometries via Rapid Prototyping and Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP),” J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 30, 2265-2277 (2010).
  37. N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “From Diatom Biomolecules to Bio-inspired Syntheses of Silica- and Titania-based Materials,” MRS Bull., 35 [2] 122-126 (2010).
  38. Y. Fang, Q. Wu, M. B. Dickerson, Y. Cai, S. Shian, J. D. Berrigan, N. Poulsen, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Protein-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Syntheses of Freestanding Microscale Titania Structures with Biologically-assembled 3-D Morphologies,” Chem. Mater., 21 [24] 5704-5710 (2009).
  39. S. Shian, K. H. Sandhage, “A Gas-Tight, Cu Ka X-ray Transparent Reaction Chamber for High Temperature X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Halide Gas/Solid Reactions,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 80, 115108/1-115108/7 (2009).
  40. G. Wang, Y. Fang, P. Kim, A. Hayek, M. R. Weatherspoon, J. W. Perry, K. H. Sandhage, S. R. Marder, S. C. Jones, “Layer-by-Layer Dendritic Growth of Hyperbranched Thin Films for Surface Sol-Gel Syntheses of Conformal, Functional, Nanocrystalline Oxide Coatings on Complex 3-D (Bio)Silica Templates,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 19 [17] 2768-2776 (2009). (Frontispiece)
  41. Y. Liu, D. W. Lipke, Y. Zhang, K. H. Sandhage, “The Kinetics of Incongruent Reduction of Tungsten Carbide (WC) via Reaction with a Hafnium-Copper (Hf-Cu) Melt,” Acta Mater., 57, 3924-3931 (2009).
  42. Z. Bao, E. M. Ernst, S. Yoo, K. H. Sandhage, “Syntheses of Porous Self-Supporting Metal Nanoparticle Assemblies with 3-D Morphologies Inherited from Biosilica Templates (Diatom Frustules),” Adv. Mater., 21 [4] 474-478 (2009).
  43. R. F. Shepherd, P. Panda, Z. Bao, K. H. Sandhage, J. A. Lewis, P. S. Doyle, “Stop-Flow Lithography of Colloidal, Glass, and Silicon Microcomponents,” Adv. Mater., 20 [24] 4734-4739 (2008).
  44. M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, R. R. Naik, “The Protein and Peptide-Directed Syntheses of Inorganic Materials,” Chem. Rev., 108 (11) 4935-4978 (2008).
  45. Y. Fang, N. Poulsen, M. B. Dickerson, Y. Cai, S. E. Jones, R. R. Naik, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Identification of Peptides Capable of Inducing the Formation of Titania but not Silica via a Subtractive Bacteriophage Display Approach,” J. Mater. Chem., 18, 3871-3875 (2008).
  46. C. M. Carney, S. A. Akbar, Y. Cai, S. Yoo, K. H. Sandhage, “Reactive Conversion of Polycrystalline SnO2 into Single Crystal SnO2 Nanofiber Arrays at Low Oxygen Partial Pressure,” J. Mater. Res., 23 [10] 2639-2644 (2008).
  47. M. R. Weatherspoon, Y. Cai, M. Crne, M. Srinivasarao, K. H. Sandhage, “3-D Rutile Titania-based Structures with Morpho Butterfly Wing Scale Morphologies,” Angew. Chemie Int. Ed., 47, 7921-7923 (2008).
  48. M. B. Dickerson, S. E. Jones, Y. Cai, G. Ahmad, R. R. Naik, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Identification and Design of Peptides for the Rapid, High Yield Formation of Nanoparticulate TiO2 from Aqueous Solutions at Room Temperature,” Chem. Mater., 20 [4] 1578-1584 (2008).
  49. G. Ahmad, M. B. Dickerson, Y. Cai, S. E. Jones, E. M. Ernst, M. S. Haluska, Y. Fang, J. Wang, G. Subramanyam, R. R. Naik, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid Bio-Enabled Formation of Ferroelectric BaTiO3 at Room Temperature from an Aqueous Salt Solution at Near Neutral pH,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 [1] 4-5 (2008).
  50. A. D. Mann, R. R Naik, H. C. DeLong, K. H. Sandhage, “Biomimetic and Bio-Enabled Materials Science and Engineering: Introduction,” J. Mater. Res., 23 [12] 3137-3139 (2008).
  51. M. R. Weatherspoon, M. B. Dickerson, G. Wang, Y. Cai, S. Shian, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, K. H. Sandhage, “Thin, Conformal, and Continuous SnO2 Coatings on Hydroxyl-Amplified Biosilica (Diatom) Templates via Layer-by-Layer Alkoxide Deposition,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 46, 5724-5727 (2007).
  52. Y. Cai, M. B. Dickerson, M. S. Haluska, Z. Kang, C. J. Summers, K. H. Sandhage, “Manganese-doped Zinc Orthosilicate-bearing Phosphor Microparticles with Controlled 3-D Shapes Derived from Diatom Frustules,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90 [4] 1304-1308 (2007).
  53. E. M. Ernst, B. C. Church, C. S. Gaddis, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, “Enhanced Hydrothermal Conversion of Surfactant-modified Diatom Microshells into Barium Titanate Replicas,” J. Mater. Res., 22 [5] 1121-1127 (2007).
  54. S.-J. Lee, S. Shian, Ch.-H. Huang, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid, Non-Photocatalytic Destruction of Organophosphorous Esters Induced by Nanostructured Titania-based Replicas of Diatom Microshells,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90 [5] 1632-1636 (2007).
  55. Z. Bao, M. R. Weatherspoon, Y. Cai, S. Shian, P. D. Graham, S. M. Allan, G. Ahmad, M. B. Dickerson, B. C. Church, Z. Kang, C. J. Summers, H. W. Abernathy, III, M. Liu, K. H. Sandhage, “Shape-preserving Reduction of Silica Micro-Assemblies into Microporous Silicon Replicas,” Nature, 446 [3] 172-175 (2007).
  56. U. Kusari, Z. Bao, Y. Cai, G. Ahmad, K. H. Sandhage, L. G. Sneddon, “Formation of Nanostructured, Nanocrystalline Boron Nitride Microparticles with Diatom-Derived 3-D Shapes,” Chem. Comm., [11] 1177-1179 (2007).
  57. N. Kroger, M. B. Dickerson, G. Ahmad, Y. Cai, M. S. Haluska, K. H. Sandhage, N. Poulsen, V. C. Sheppard, “Bio-enabled Synthesis of Rutile (TiO2) at Ambient Temperature and Neutral pH,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 45, 7239-7243 (2006).
  58. A. W. Schill, C. S. Gaddis, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed Y. Cai, V. T. Milam, K. H. Sandhage, “Ultrafast Electronic Relaxation and Charge Carrier Localization in CdS/CdSe/CdS Quantum Dot Heterostructures,” Nano Lett., 6 [9] 1940-1949 (2006).
  59. G. Ahmad, M. B. Dickerson, B. C. Church, Y. Cai, S. E. Jones, R. R. Naik, J. S. King, C. J. Summers, N. Kroger, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid, Room-Temperature Formation of Crystalline Calcium Molybdate Phosphor Microparticles via Peptide-Induced Precipitation,” Adv. Mater., 18, 1759-1763 (2006).
  60. E. Koep, C. Jin, M. S. Haluska, R. Das, R. Narayan, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, M. Liu, “Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Materials for SOFCs Prepared via Pulsed Laser Deposition,” J. Power Sources, 161 [1] 250-255 (2006).
  61. S. Yoo, H. Rick, K. H. Sandhage, S. A. Dregia, S. A. Akbar, “Kinetic Mechanism of TiO2 Nanocarving via Reaction with Hydrogen Gas,” J. Mater. Res., 21 [7] 1822-1829 (2006).
  62. H. R. Luckarift, M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, J. C. Spain, “Rapid, Room-Temperature Synthesis of Anti-bacterial Bio-nano-composites of Lysozyme with Amorphous Silica or Titania,” Small, 2 [5] 640-643 (2006). (Cover Article)
  63. M. R. Weatherspoon, M. S. Haluska, Y. Cai, J. S. King, C. J. Summers, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, “Phosphor Microparticles of Controlled 3-D Shape from Phytoplankton,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 153 [2] H34-H37 (2006).
  64. S. Shian, Y. Cai, M. R. Weatherspoon, S. M. Allan, K. H. Sandhage, “Three-Dimensional Assemblies of Zirconia Nanocrystals via Shape-preserving Reactive Conversion of Diatom Microshells,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 89 [2] 694-698 (2006).
  65. M. S. Haluska, I. Dragomir, K. H. Sandhage, and R. L. Snyder, “X-ray Diffraction Analyses of 3-D MgO-based Replicas of Diatom Microshells Synthesized by a Low-Temperature Gas/Solid Displacement Reaction,” Powder Diff., 20 [4] 306-310 (2005).
  66. M. S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, S. T. Misture, “A Closed, Heated Reaction Chamber Design for Dynamic High-Temperature X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Gas/Solid Displacement Reactions,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 76, 126101-1 - 126101-4 (2005).
  67. Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Zn2SiO4-coated Microparticles with Biologically-controlled 3-D Shapes,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 202 [10] R105-R107 (2005). (Cover Article)
  68. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, G. Ahmad, S. M. Allan, Y. Cai, M. B. Dickerson, C. S. Gaddis, M. S. Haluska, S. Shian, M. R. Weatherspoon, R. A. Rapp, R. R. Unocic, F. M. Zalar, Y. Zhang, M. Hildebrand, B. P. Palenik, “Merging Biological Self-assembly with Synthetic Chemical Tailoring: The Potential for 3-D Genetically-Engineered Micro/nanodevices (3-D GEMS),” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 2 [4] 317-326 (2005).
  69. . Y. Cai, S. M. Allan, F. M. Zalar, K. H. Sandhage, “Three-dimensional Magnesia-based Nanocrystal Assemblies via Low-Temperature Magnesiothermic Reaction of Diatom Microshells,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 88 [7] 2005-2010 (2005).
  70. M. R. Weatherspoon, S. M. Allan, E. Hunt, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Sol-Gel Synthesis on Self-Replicating Single-Cell Scaffolds: Applying Complex Chemistries to Nature’s 3-D Nanostructured Templates,” Chem. Comm., [5] 651-653 (2005).
  71. J. Zhao, C. S. Gaddis, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Free-standing Microscale Structures of Zirconia Nanocrystals with Biologically Replicable 3-D Shapes,” J. Mater. Res., 20 [2] 282-287 (2005).
  72. M. B. Dickerson, R. R. Naik, P. M. Sarosi, G. Agarwal, M. O. Stone, K. H. Sandhage, “Ceramic Nanoparticle Assemblies with Tailored Shapes and Tailored Chemistries via Biosculpting and Shape-preserving Inorganic Conversion,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech., 5 [1], 63-67 (2005).
  73. C. S. Gaddis, K. H. Sandhage, “Freestanding Microscale 3-D Polymeric Structures with Biologically-derived Shapes and Nanoscale Features,” J. Mater. Res., 19 [9], 2541-2545 (2004).
  74. M. B. Dickerson, R. R. Naik, M. O. Stone, Y. Cai, and K. H. Sandhage, “Identification of Peptides that Promote the Rapid Precipitation of Germania Nanoparticle Networks via Use of a Peptide Display Library,” Chem. Comm., 15, 1776-1777 (2004).
  75. S. Yoo, S. A. Akbar, K. H. Sandhage, “Nanocarving of Titania (TiO2): A Novel Approach for Fabricating a Chemical Sensing Platform,” Ceram. Int., 30 [7] 1121-1126 (2004).
  76. M. B. Dickerson, P. J. Wurm, J. R. Schorr, W. P. Hoffman, E. Hunt, K. H. Sandhage, “Near Net-Shaped, Ultra-High Melting, Recession-Resistant Rocket Nozzles Liners via the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) Method,” J. Mater. Sci., 39 (19) 6005-6015 (2004).
  77. R. R. Unocic, F. M. Zalar, P. M. Sarosi, Y. Cai, and K. H. Sandhage, “Anatase Assemblies from Algae: Coupling Biological Self-assembly of 3-D Nanoparticle Structures with Synthetic Reaction Chemistry,” Chem. Comm., [7] 795-796 (2004).
  78. S. Yoo, S. A. Akbar, K. H. Sandhage, “Oriented Single Crystal Titania Nanofibers via Nanocarving with Hydrogen-bearing Gas,” Adv. Mater., 16 [3] 260-264 (2004).
  79. Z. Grzesik, M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, “The Incongruent Reduction of Tungsten Carbide by a Zirconium-Copper Melt,” J. Mater. Res., 18 [9] 2135-2140 (2003).
  80. N. A. Travitzky, P. Kumar, K. H. Sandhage, R. Janssen, N. Claussen, “In Situ Synthesis of Al2O3 Reinforced Ni-based Composites,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 5 [4] 256-259 (2003).
  81. N. Travitzky, P. Kumar, K. H. Sandhage, R. Janssen, and N. Claussen, ”Rapid Syntheses of Al2O3 Reinforced Fe-Cr-Ni Composites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, A344, 245-252 (2003).
  82. K. H. Sandhage, M. B. Dickerson, P. M. Huseman, M. A. Caranna, J. D. Clifton, T. A. Bull, T. J. Heibel, W. R. Overton, M. E. A. Schoenwaelder, “Novel, Bioclastic Route to Self-Assembled, 3-D, Chemically Tailored Meso/Nanostructures: Shape-Preserving Reactive Conversion of Biosilica (Diatom) Microshells,” Adv. Mater., 14 [6] 429-433 (2002).
  83. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder, and K. H. Sandhage, “Dense, Near Net-Shaped, Carbide/Refractory Metal Composites at Modest Temperatures by the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) Method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 [3] 730-732 (2002).
  84. M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, “Low-Temperature Reaction Casting of Dense, Near Net-Shaped Carbide/Refractory Metal Composites with Tailored Phase Contents,” Latin Am. J. Metall. Mater., 21 [1] 18-24 (2001).
  85. P. Kumar, N. A. Travitsky, P. Beyer, K. H. Sandhage, R. Janssen, N. Claussen, “Reactive Casting of Ceramic Composites (R-3C),” Scripta Mater., 44 [5] 751-757 (2001).
  86. S. Vilayannur, K. H. Sandhage, “Selective Internal Oxidation of the Noble-Metal-Rich Intermetallic Compound, BaAg5,” Oxid. Met., 55 [1,2] 87-103 (2001).
  87. R. Citak, M. Turker, K. H. Sandhage, "Effect of Mechanical Alloying Duration on the Microstructure in Composites Produced Via Oxidation of Ba-Al Powders,” Turkish J. Eng. Environmental Sci., 25 [3] 205-210 (2001).
  88. S. Vilayannur, K. H. Sandhage, S. Dregia, “Selective External Oxidation of the Intermetallic Compound, BaAg5,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 [7] 2805-2813 (2000).
  89. P. I. Gouma, M. J. Mills, K. H. Sandhage, “The Fabrication of Free-Standing Titania-based Gas Sensors by the Oxidation of Metallic Titanium Foils,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83 [4] 1007-1009 (2000).
  90. K. H. Sandhage, S. M. Allameh, P. Kumar, H. J. Schmutzler, D. Viers, X.-D. Zhang, “Near Net-Shaped, Alkaline-Earth-bearing Ceramics for Electronic and Refractory Applications via the Oxidation of Solid, Metal-bearing Precursors (the VIMOX Process),” Mater. & Manuf. Proc., 15 [1] 1-28 (2000).
  91. E. Saw, K. H. Sandhage, P. K. Gallagher, A. S. Litsky, “Near Net-Shaped Calcium Hydroxyapatite by the Oxidation of Machinable, Ca-bearing Precursors (the Volume Identical Metal Oxidation, or VIMOX, Process),” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83 [4] 998-1000 (2000).
  92. T. J. Detrie, K. H. Sandhage, “The Fabrication of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8±x/Ag Superconducting Tapes by the Oxidation and Post-Oxidation (Partial Melt) Annealing of Malleable, Metal-Bearing Precursors,” J. Mater. Res., 15 [2] 306-316 (2000).
  93. E. Saw, K. H. Sandhage, P. K. Gallagher, A. S. Litsky, “The Fabrication of Near Net-Shaped Hydroxyapatite Ceramics by the Oxidation of Solid, Metal-bearing Precursors,” Mater. & Manuf. Proc., 15 [1] 29-46 (2000).

GRANTED PATENTS

  1. K. H. Sandhage, Z. Bao, "Methods of Fabricating Nanoscale-to-Microscale Structures" U.S. Patent No. 7,615,206, November 10, 2009.
  2. K. H. Sandhage, "Shaped Microcomponents via Reactive Conversion of Synthetic Microtemplates" U.S. Patent No. 7,393,517, July 1, 2008.
  3. S. A. Akbar, S. Yoo, K. H. Sandhage, "Method of Forming Nanostructures on Ceramics" U.S. Patent No. 7,303,723, Dec. 4, 2007.
  4. K. H. Sandhage, "Shaped Microcomponents via Reactive Conversion of Biologically-derived Microtemplates" U.S. Patent No. 7,204,971, April 17, 2007.
  5. K. H. Sandhage, "Shaped Microcomponents via Reactive Conversion of Biologically-derived Microtemplates" U.S. Patent No. 7,067,104, June 27, 2006.
  6. K. H. Sandhage, P. Kumar, "Method for Fabricating Shaped Monolithic Ceramics and Ceramic Composites through Displacive Compensation of Porosity, and Ceramics and Composites made Thereby" U. S. Patent No. 6,833,337, December 21, 2004.
  7. M. J. Mills, K. H. Sandhage, P.-I. Gouma, "Free-Standing Fluid Sensors, Filters, and Catalyst Devices, and Methods Involving Same" U.S. Patent No. 6,689,322, Feb. 10, 2004.
  8. M. J. Mills, K. H. Sandhage, P.-I. Gouma, "Free-Standing Fluid Sensors, Filters, and Catalyst Devices, and Methods Involving Same" U.S. Patent No. 6,682,700, Jan. 27, 2004.
  9. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, "Electrolysis Apparatus and Methods Using Urania in Electrodes, and Methods of Producing Reduced Substances, from Oxidized Substances, Including the Electrowinning of Aluminum" U.S. Patent No. 6,616,826, Sept. 9, 2003.
  10. K. H. Sandhage, R. R. Unocic, M. B. Dickerson, M. Timberlake, K. Guerra, "Method for Fabricating High-Melting, Wear-Resistant Ceramics and Ceramic Composites at Low Temperatures, U.S. Patent No. 6,598,656, July 29, 2003.
  11. K. H. Sandhage, P. Kumar, "Method for Fabricating Shaped Monolithic Ceramics and Ceramic Composites through Displacive Compensation of Porosity, and Ceramics and Composites made Thereby" U. S. Patent No. 6,407,022, June 18, 2002.
  12. K. H. Sandhage, "Method for Oxygenating Oxide Superconductive Materials" U.S. Patent No. 6,284,713, Sept. 4, 2001.
  13. N. Claussen, K. H. Sandhage, P. Kumar, R. Janssen, P. Beyer, F. Wagner, N. Travitsky, "Die Casting of Refractory Metal-Ceramic Composite Materials" European Patent No. 1,252,349, German Patent No. 10,047,384, Aug. 9, 2001.
  14. . E. R. Podtburg, K. H. Sandhage, A. Otto, L. J. Masur, C. A. Craven, J. D. Schreiber, "Oxide Superconductor Precursors" U.S. Patent No. 6,219,901, April 24, 2001.
  15. K. H. Sandhage, "Method for Oxygenating Oxide Superconductive Materials" U.S. Patent No. 6,153,561, Nov. 28, 2000.
  16. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, "Electrodes, Electrolysis Apparatus and Methods Using Uranium-bearing Ceramic Electrodes, and Methods of Producing a Metal from a Metal Compound, Dissolved in a Molten Salt, Including Electrowinning of Aluminum" U.S. Patent No. 6,146,513, Nov. 14, 2000.
  17. A. Otto, L. J. Masur, E. R. Podtburg, K. H. Sandhage, "High Pressure Oxidation of Precursor Alloys" U.S. Patent No. 6,066,599, May 23, 2000.
  18. E. R. Podtburg, K. H. Sandhage, A. Otto, L. J. Masur, C. A. Craven, J. D. Schreiber, "Composite Metal Preforms for Oxidation to Manufacture High-Temperature Superconductors" U. S. Patent No. 5,851,957, Dec. 22, 1998.
  19. J. Gilliland, A. Morrow, K. H. Sandhage, "Radiation Resistant Optical Waveguide Fiber" U. S. Patent No. 5,681,365, October 28, 1997.
  20. J. Gilliland, A. Morrow, K. H. Sandhage, "Radiation Resistant Optical Waveguide Fiber" U. S. Patent No. 5,509,101, April 16, 1996.
  21. A. Otto, L. Masur, E. Potdburg, K. H. Sandhage, "High Pressure Oxidation of Precursor Alloys" U. S. Patent No. 5,472,527, Dec. 5, 1995.
  22. K. H. Sandhage, "Processes for Fabricating Structural Ceramic Bodies and Structural Ceramic-Bearing Composite Bodies" U. S. Patent No. 5,447,291, Sept. 5, 1995.
  23. K. H. Sandhage, "Electroceramics and Process for Making the Same" U. S. Patent No. 5,318,725, June 7, 1994.
  24. K. H. Sandhage, "A Process for Making Ceramic/Metal and Ceramic/Ceramic Laminates by the Oxidation of a Metal Precursor" U. S. Patent No. 5,259,885, Nov. 9, 1993.
  25. D. R. Powers, K. H. Sandhage, M. J. Stalker, "Method for Making a Preform Doped with a Metal Oxide" U. S. Patent No. 5,203,897, Apr. 20, 1993.
  26. G. D. Smith, G. McKimpson, L. J. Masur, K. H. Sandhage, "Process for Forming Superconductor Precursor" U. S. Patent No. 5,034,373, July, 23, 1991.

Thomas H. Sanders, Jr.

Regents' Professor
Sanders, Jr.

Contact Information

Office:
LOVE 268
Phone:
404.894.5793
Fax:
NULL

Dr. Sanders joined the faculty at Georgia Tech after serving 5 years as a Materials Science and Engineering faculty member at Purdue University. He has worked as a Research Scientist at Alcoa Technical Center (1974-78) and the Mechanical  Properties Research Laboratory at Georgia Tech (1979-1980).

Mary Lynn Realff

Associate Professor & Assoc. Chair for Undergrad Programs
Realff

Contact Information

Office:
MRDC 4510
Phone:
404.894.2496
Fax:
404.894.8780

Dr. Mary Lynn Realff is an Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). She received her BS Textile Engineering from Georgia Tech and her PhD in Mechanical Engineering and Polymer Science & Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). At Georgia Tech, she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the mechanics of textile structures and polymer science areas. Dr. Realff has made a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of woven fabrics.

Dong Qin

Associate Professor
Qin

Contact Information

Office:
MoSE 3100 N
Phone:
404.385.2182
Fax:
404.385.3734

Dr. Qin is an Associate Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. Her academic records include a B.S. in chemistry from Fudan University, a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania, a postdoctoral stint in materials science at Harvard University, and an MBA from the University of Washington.

A list of publication is available at http://www.researcherid.com/rid/E-1434-2011

Selected Publications:

Galvanic replacement-free deposition of Au on Ag for core-shell nanocubes with enhanced chemical stability and SERS activity, Y. Yang; J. Liu; Z. Fu; and D. Qin, JACS, 136, 8153-8156, (2014).

Transformation of Ag nanocubes into Ag-Au hollow nanostructures with enriched Ag contents to improve SERS activity and chemical stability, Y. Yang; Q. Zhang; Z. Fu; and D. Qin, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6, 3750-3757, (2014).

The role of etching in the formation of Ag nanoplates with straight, curved and wavy edges and comparison of their SERS properties, Y. Yang; X. L. Zhong; Q. Zhang; L. G. Blackstad; Z. Fu; Z. Y. Li; and D. Qin, Small, 10, 1430-1437, (2014).

Citrate-free synthesis of Ag nanoplates and the mechanistic study, Q. Zhang; Y. Yang; J. R. Li; R. Iurilli; S. Xie, and D. Qin, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5, 6333-6345, (2013).